Experiment Terhadap Theory
Teori Self-persepsi (SPT) adalah rekening uang kembalian sikap yang diperkembangkan oleh psikolog Daryl Bem   menonjolkan bahwa kami memperkembangkan sikap kami dengan mematuhi kelakuan kami dan memutuskan sikap yang mana sudah harus menyebabkan mereka. Teori ialah counterintuitive di alam yang menyadari bahwa kami selalu mengira bahwa sikap terdapat sebelum kelakuan. Selanjutnya, teori mengusulkan agar orang menyebabkan sikapnya tanpa accessing ke negara bagian kesadaran dan perasaan dalamnya.  Dia berkeputusan kelakuan jelasnya sendiri secara rasional di cara sama dia mencoba menerangkan others’ kelakuan. Di percobaan untuk memutuskan apakah orang menyebabkannya/sikapnya sebagai seorang pengamat tanpa accessingnya/negara bagian dalamnya, Bem memeriksa simulasi antar perseorangan, di yang “observer-participant” diberi deskripsi terperinci satu kondisi eksperimen ketidakcocokan kognitif.
Pembuktian Teori Persepsi Kepribadian
Subyek mendengarkan pita seorang laki-laki yang secara antusias menggambarkan tugas yang membalik pasak yang membosankan. Beberapa subyek dikatakan bahwa laki-laki sudah dibayar $20 untuk penghormatannya dan kelompok lain diberi tahu bahwa dia dibayar $1. Yang itu di pikiran kondisi terakhir bahwa laki-laki sudah harus menikmati tugas lebih dari yang itu di kondisi sebesar $20. Hasil berlangsung mirip eksperimen Festinger-Carlsmith yang asli. Karena pengamat, yang tidak mempunyai akses ke actors’ negara bagian kesadaran dan perasaan dalam, dapat menunjukkan sikap sebenarnya aktor, mungkin bahwa aktor sendiri juga mencapai sikap mereka dengan memandang kelakuan mereka sendiri dari observer’s sudut pandang.
Teori persepsi kepribadian ialah intially mengusulkan sebagai pilihan menerangkan kesimpulan percobaan teori ketidakcocokan kognitif, dan ada perdebatan sebagai untuk entah orang mengalami ganti sikap sebagai usaha untuk mengurangi ketidakcocokan atau akibat self-persepsi proses. Mendasarkan atas fakta bahwa self-persepsi teori berbeda dengan teori ketidakcocokan kognitif di itu tidak mengadakan pengalaman orang itu "negara bagian naik mobil negatif" mengadakan "ketidakcocokan" yang diminta oleh mereka untuk mengurangi, eksperimen berikut dilakukan untuk membandingkan kedua teori di bawah kondisi berbeda.
Tantangan Dan Kritik
Penelitian awal di atas pameran teori ketidakcocokan kognitif bahwa orang memang pengalaman arousal kalau kelakuan mereka tidak konsisten dengan sikap sebelumnya mereka. Waterman  mendesain eksperimen di peserta yang mana diminta menulis sehelai karangan yang menentang posisi mereka setuju. Lalu mereka diminta dengan segera melakukan tugas sederhana dan tugas sulit dan kinerja mereka di kedua tugas dinilai. Ditemukan bahwa mereka main lebih baik di tugas sederhana dan lebih buruk di tugas sulit, dibandingkan dengan yang mempunyai baru saja sehelai karangan yang cocok sampai sikap sebenarnya mereka. Seperti yang menyalakan lampu sein dengan pertemuan silaturahmi facilitation, meningkatkan perbuatan di tugas sederhana dan perbuatan yang diperburuk di pameran tugas sulit bahwa arousal dihasilkan oleh orang kalau kelakuan mereka tidak konsisten dengan sikap mereka. Oleh karena itu, teori ketidakcocokan kognitif nampak di kasus ini. Entah ketidakcocokan kognitif atau self-persepsi adalah teori yang lebih berguna adalah topik cukup banyak kontroversi dan sekumpulan besar kesusasteraan.
THE NEGATIVE AFFECT OF SMOKING
Last time until now, smoking is very close for men, but in this era, thera many wumen use smoke too. They do that because they have many reason :
The first reason, if they use cigarette, they felt relaxe, The scond reason, if they use cigarette they get new spirit in their selves.
Cigarette has positive affect, if they look at from social side,as add budget in our country , so many factory of cigarette can give some work to use less people,
However, cigarette has negative effect more than positive affect : amog , hurting their selves, like the fact, in U.S. more than 400;000 deats because thhy asumme smoking countine that make them ilness, risk, as lung cacer and anthers cancer, so smoke can hurting anothers, example, smoking harm not just the smoker but olso the family member and other, who breath the smokers cigarette smoke, called scondhand, scondhand smoke heppened whoever, since raech old , teenager, young person, childrents,so untill babies. Because of it, there are of them are dei, beween of them, more than 4000 babies was dei each year because of both teir perent asumme smoke,
Accordingly science of healty said, if they can leave the smoke, direcly they have been making their selves to be better , like , smell food better, breath smell better, so they can controled their money, so they can save their money in bank or can use to nathers inportent than
Summary, cigarette has positive affect and negative affect, cigarette not just dingrous smokers but for nather smkers called scondhand smoke, scondhand smoke heppened whoever, since raech old , teenager, young person, childrents,so untill babies. So if the smokers can be leave its, they have been making their selves to be betters, like smell food better, breath smell better and nathers.
THE TEACHER’S METHOD TO IN CREASING STUDENTS CAPACITY IN FIELD LISTENING EDUCATION ENGLISH
English as a foreign language has the greatest motion in
Language must be taught in an integrative way where all four skills are focused.
But most often, even in the modern methods of SL teaching, quite surprisingly, listening skill is ignored in a way or another! David Nunan (1997) commented that listening is the “Cinderella Skill” which is overlooked by its elder sister “speaking” in SL learning. As ‘to expertise the productive skills like speaking and writing’ has become the standard of the knowledge of second language, listening and reading have been turned to be the secondary ones. Besides, in our schools, colleges and even in the higher levels, instructors direct how to read and write, not how to speak or listen. It is believed that these would be mastered by the learners automatically. Although listening had a boost up in 1960s (direct method) and in 1980s (Krashen’s input hypothesis, 1981; James Asher’s Total physical response, 1988 and Gillian Brown, 1988), it turned a fashion in most cases!
In this article, I have tried to show how listening helps EFL learners to develop language skill. Despite the fact that it is not a research article, a small scale survey has been done at Noakhali Science and
What is listening? Listening is a skill in a sense that it’s a related but distinct process than hearing which involves merely perceiving sound in a passive way while listening occupies an active and immediate analysis of the streams of sounds. This correlation is like that between seeing and reading. Seeing is a very ordinary and passive state while reading is a focused process requiring reader’s instrumental approach. Listening has a “volitional component”. Tomatis’ (2007) view is, while listening; the desire to listen, as well as the capability to listen (comprehension) must be present with the listener for the successful recognition and analysis of the sound.
What ‘listening’ really means is ‘listening and understanding what we hear at the same time’. So, two concurrent actions are demanded to take place in this process. Besides, according to Mecheal Rost (1991), listening comprises some component skills which are:
· Discriminating between sounds,
· Recognizing words,
· Identifying grammatical groupings of words,
· Identifying expressions and sets of utterances that act to create meaning,
· Connecting linguistic cues to non-linguistic and paralinguistic cues,
· Using background knowledge to predict and later to confirm meaning and recalling important words and ides.
However, none of these micro-skills is either used or effective in isolation or is called listening. Successful listening refers to ‘the integration of these component skills’ and listening is nothing but the ‘coordination of the component skills’.
Besides the division of the skills as ‘receptive’ and ‘productive’, another subdivision focuses on ‘one-way reception’ and ‘interactive reception’ in this age of active learning.
Moreover, there is a traditional labeling for reading and listening as “passive” skills. But linguists believe that a listener is involved in guessing, anticipating, checking, interpreting, interacting and organizing by associating and accommodating their prior knowledge of meaning and form. Rost (1990) thinks, listeners “co-author” the discourse and they construct it by their responses.
Even as a receptive skill, listening differs greatly with reading as reading materials are printed and permanent enough where the learners are required to interact with the next sentence using the knowledge of the previous one while listening involves continuous material presentation where they have to respond to the immediate expression. From the view point of “product” or “process”, listening is more a process than a product which instantly shapes the understanding and utterances of the learners.
Methods applied for the survey included questionnaire and group interviews taken with 40 students who attend listening classes in the language lab regularly and it has been observed by the author that they do better in speaking and reading than others. The subjects are the students of 1st year 1st term from the department of Pharmacy and CSTE, ACCT, and FIMS. Although they are really not beginners and have learnt English at their secondary and higher secondary level, they have no exposure to authentic English speaking and listening. Here they have been practicing listening in a language lab using headphone using audio and video for three months. The purpose of the survey was convincingly explained to them and they took 30 minutes to think on the questions and to answer them.
30 students claim that listening practice has raised their confidence by throwing away their fear, hesitations, inertia and shyness that they had before to speak in English.
· All of the 40 students have told that watching video clippings and movie while listening enables to identify the right responses, styles, expressions, behaviors, attitudes and emotions in particular situations through concentrating on gesture, body language, non- linguistic cues, planning utterances, adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairing utterances by asking for repetition, pre-closing and closing.
· 5 students have said that it has quickened their planning to respond as they listen to faster speaking than their own.
· 35 students opine that exposure to naturally spoken input by native speakers gives them practical experience of using language in target situations.
· 20 students who are highly motivated have found a change in their speaking style.
· 36 students think that listening to dialogues and conversation enriches their vocabulary and teaches how to use them appropriately.
· 10 students have found that intensive listening practice helps to remember the syntactic structures, spelling, accent and intonation.
· 19 students mention about learning of the cultures, feelings, reactions, trend and customs of the English speaking people that helps them feel motivated (integrative) to speak English.
· All of the 40 students opine that watching movie or video clippings draws more attention during the class and add to their learning.
Unfortunately, as I find a very diminutive effort in teaching listening in our country, this discussion may appear too much redundant to read to the language teachers! What we find in a traditional EFL classroom? Most of the classes complete their Language course without practice listening even for a day! Very few ELT trained teachers, now-a-days, in line with the flow of CLT; efforts for listening practice consisted of teacher reading aloud a written text slowly, once or more so that it is understood and than asking some comprehension questions. It seems the objective here is ‘to present the written language in an alternative way’ where characteristics of naturally spoken language is totally absent and listening practice is farther beyond. If the materials used for listening class comply with that in speaking class, it will, certainly, give a fully fledged input to the learners, Teaching listening requires a bit more on the part of the teacher than that of the learners. One of the main principle of teaching listening, as I believe, should be “ Language material intended to used for training listening comprehension should never be presented visually first.” Good listening lessons go beyond the main listening task itself with related activities before and after the listening. The format may be like the following:
a. Pre-listening Stage: Some activities before listening may serve as preparation or warm-up for listening in several ways. These function as ‘reference’ and ‘framework’ by giving prior knowledge of listening activities. Some recommended per-listening activities include:
b. Introducing the topic and assessing their background knowledge of the topic or content of the material through commenting on a picture or photograph.
c. Activating their existing knowledge through discussion. Reading through comprehension questions in advance, working out own opinion on a topic, predicting content from the title etc. can be done.
d. Clarifying any necessary contextual information and vocabulary to comprehend the text. In this regard showing pictures maps or graphs and may be helpful.
e. Informing them of the type of text, their role, purposes of the listening etc. A short reading passage on a similar topic may help them.
While-Listening Stage: activities in this stage must follow the learners’ specific needs, instructional goal, listening purposes and learners’ proficiency level. While listening activities directly relate to the text and listeners are asked to do these during or immediately after listening.
Some specific cares are required in designing while-listening activities. These are:
a. If the students are asked to give written information after listening, they should have chance to listen the text more than once which makes it easier for them to keep concentration while listening with specific purposes.
b. Writing activities should be to a minimum. As comprehension is the prime target, writing would make the listening more demanding. are samples of this.
c. Global activities like getting the main idea, topic, setting, summary that focus on the content and forms of the text should be given more so that listeners are guided through the text. Listening for the gist is such an activity.
Both of the ideas are true that attentiveness is a prior condition for understanding and listener often lapse attention for various reasons. Losing interest, inability to keep up with, losing track of goals, less confident are some of them. Teacher can help the listeners to hold their attention by personalizing the martial, using the target language while talking to them to keep flow, and lessening their stress and motivating by asking oral responses repeatedly. Activities in this stage would be interesting and easy including face to face interaction, using visual and tangible topics, clear description of the listening procedure, minimum use of written language, and immediate and ongoing responses etc so that learners can easily keep pace with the text and activity.
Listening to short chunks, music image, personal stories, teacher- talk, small question- answer, and interview etc may be applied in this stage.
This type of listening has also a greater ease than other types as it is concerned to promote overall comprehension of a text and never requires learners to follow every word and understand them. Learners need to comprehend the text as a whole which is called global understanding. Activities in this section must be chosen in terms with the proficiency level of the listeners.
At the lower level they may have problems to organize the information, so some non-verbal forms in responding might be given such as putting pictures in a right sequence, following directions on a map, checking of items in a photograph, completing a grid, chart or timetable etc.
At the developed stage, some language based tasks requiring constructing meaning, inferring decisions, interpreting text and understanding gist are usually recommended. Completing cloze exercises or giving one or two word answers, multiple choices, predicting the next utterances, forming connected sets of notes, inferring opinions, or interpreting parts of the text are some samples.
Hearing clearly’ is also a prime aspect of listening as it includes accurate perception without which the second phase of processing meaning becomes very difficult. Listening intensively is quite important to understand the language form of the text as we have to understand both the lexical and grammatical units that lead to form meaning. So, intensive listening requires attention to specific items of language, sound or factual detail such as words, phrase, grammatical units, pragmatic units, sound changes (vowel reduction and consonant assimilation), stress, intonation and pauses etc. Feedback on accuracy and repetition on the teacher’s part promote success here.
Paraphrasing, remembering specific words and sequences, filling gaps with missing words, identifying numbers and letters, picking out particular facts, discriminating the pronunciation of same phoneme in different positions, replacing words, finding stress and boundaries are some good intensive listening practice.
It involves listening to selected part of a text, as it’s name suggests, to predict information and select ‘cues’ surrounding information. Thus, the listeners may have an assessment of their development in listening to authentic language. Here the focus is on the main parts of the discourse and by noticing these parts listener construct their understanding of the meaning of whole of the text through inferring. As the expectation on understanding is focused and has a purpose, in these activities, listeners have the chance of second listening to check understanding and have feedback repeatedly.
Listening to sound sequences, documentary, story maps, incomplete monologues, conversation cues and topic listening are examples of selective listening.
This is a very advanced stag of listening practice as it implies social interaction in small groups which is a ‘true test’ of listening. In interactive listening, learners, either in pairs or in groups, receive new information, identify them continuously. Besides, they have to work out the problems of understanding each other and formulate responses immediately as we are required to do in real life. So, in spite of calling ‘practice’, this goes beyond of it. As this phase involves both comprehension and production, it directly promotes speaking skill. Teachers have a central role in this stage. They have to set up specific goals so that learners can asses their own performance, observe learners’ language in order to provide immediate feedback on their interaction strategies.
Group survey, self introductions, short speeches, chatting and discussing, exchanging news and views, interviewing and being interviewed etc. might be appropriate here. C. After-listening Stage: post listening activities can be used to check comprehension, valuate listening skill, use of listening strategies and use the knowledge gained to other contexts. So, these are called listening exercises at all and defined as ‘follow-up works.’ The features of these activities are:
a. Related to pre-listening activities, such as predicting.
b. May create a real life situation where students might be asked to use knowledge gained through listening.
c. May extend the topic and help the students remember new vocabulary.
Using notes made while listening in order to write a summary, reading a related text, doing a role play, writing on the same theme, studying new grammatical structures, practicing pronunciation, discussion group, craft project etc. are some post-listening activities.
Variables affecting and effecting successful listening:
ü Noise: Distractions and noise during the listening segment should be reduced and sound-proof language lab is perfect for this purpose.
ü Equipment: If the cassette player or CD player being used does not produce acceptable sound quality, it may harm developing skill or motivation.
ü Repetition: playing the text 2-3 times might be required in respect of the types of texts. In case of no chance of repetition, learners may become anxious about catching it all the first time and that will impede their actual performance.
ü Recording own tape: Any way, recording must be of an English speaker. Copying recording two to three times is preferred in order to avoid rewind which may discrete attention of the listeners.
ü Using video: Using video clippings with sound off and then asking students what dialogue is taking place is a good practice. Next, the teacher may play sound and check their understanding and interpret them about the discrepancy between their predictions and reality. It may also be done with the video first and giving only sound to guess what the context is can obviously effect comprehending.
Definitely we have to admit that language learning depends on listening as we respond only after listening something. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the stimuli for language acquisition and make the learners interact in spoken communication. So, effective and ideal language instructors should help the learners to be introduced with native speaking, to be respondent to that both cognitively and orally. In order to do so, first, they should show the students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes.
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In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. The word perception comes from the Latin perception-, percepio, , meaning "receiving, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses." --OED.com. Methods of studying perception range from essentially biological or physiological approaches, through psychological approaches through the philosophy of mind and in empiricist epistemology, such as that of David Hume, John Locke, George Berkeley, or as in Merleau Ponty's affirmation of perception as the basis of all science and knowledge.
History of the study of perception
Perception is one of the oldest fields within scientific psychology, and there are correspondingly many theories about its underlying processes. The oldest quantitative law in psychology is the Weber-Fechner law, which quantifies the relationship between the intensity of physical stimuli and their perceptual effects. It was the study of perception that gave rise to the Gestalt school of psychology, with its emphasis on holistic approach.
Main article: Historical and philosophical approaches to perception
Many cognitive psychologists hold that, as we move about in the world, we create a model of how the world works. That is, we sense the objective world, but our sensations map to percepts, and these percepts are provisional, in the same sense that scientific hypotheses are provisional (cf. in the scientific method). As we acquire new information, our percepts shift. Abraham Pais' biography refers to the 'esemplastic' nature of imagination. In the case of visual perception, some people can actually see the percept shift in their mind's eye. Others who are not picture thinkers, may not necessarily perceive the 'shape-shifting' as their world changes. The 'esemplastic' nature has been shown by experiment: an ambiguous image has multiple interpretations on the perceptual level.
Just as one object can give rise to multiple percepts, so an object may fail to give rise to any percept at all: if the percept has no grounding in a person's experience, the person may literally not perceive it.
This confusing ambiguity of perception is exploited in human technologies such as camouflage, and also in biological mimicry, for example by Peacock butterflies, whose wings bear eye markings that birds respond to as though they were the eyes of a dangerous predator. Perceptual ambiguity is not restricted to vision. For example, recent touch perception research (Robles-De-La-Torre & Hayward 2001) found that kinesthesia-based haptic perception strongly relies on the forces experienced during touch. This makes it possible to produce illusory touch percepts (see also the MIT Technology Review article The Cutting Edge of Haptics).
Cognitive theories of perception assume there is a poverty of stimulus. This (with reference to perception) is the claim that sensations are, by themselves, unable to provide a unique description of the world. Sensations require 'enriching', which is the role of the mental model. A different type of theory is the perceptual ecology approach of James J. Gibson. Gibson rejected the assumption of a poverty of stimulus by rejecting the notion that perception is based in sensations. Instead, he investigated what information is actually presented to the perceptual systems. He (and the psychologists who work within this paradigm) detailed how the world could be specified to a mobile, exploring organism via the lawful projection of information about the world into energy arrays. Specification is a 1:1 mapping of some aspect of the world into a perceptual array; given such a mapping, no enrichment is required and perception is direct.
In Objectivist philosophy, sensations are not retained in memory but the object of perception is. Perceptions, not sensations, are self-evident "givens." Epistemology in philosophy is to verify the nature of the perception. To do this, one is first aware of an entity. The verification process makes an identiy of it by making measurements, i.e., automatic comparisons. Example: you sense something (entity) that has four legs and a large flat surface (epistemological measurements). Then you compare it to other things of similar appearance and decide it is a table. Cognition(perception) and measurement (four legs;large flat top) are the primary elements of consciousness. The mental integration of two or more percepts create a concept.
The ecological understanding of perception advanced from Gibson's early work is perception-in-action, the notion that perception is a requisite property of animate action, without perception action would not be guided and without action perception would be pointless. Animate actions require perceiving and moving together. In a sense, "perception and movement are two sides of the same coin, the coin is action." (D.N. Lee) A mathematical theory of perception-in-action has been devised and investigated in many forms of controlled movement by many different species of organism, General Tau Theory. According to this theory, tau information, or time-to-goal information is the fundamental 'percept' in perception.
We gather information about the world and interact with it through our actions. Perceptual information is critical for action. Perceptual deficits may lead to profound deficits in action (for touch-perception-related deficits, see Robles-De-La-Torre 2006).
Persepsi dan tindakan Kami mengumpulkan informasi di sekitar dunia dan bergaul dengannya lewat tindakan kami. Informasi Perceptual kritis untuk tindakan. Defisit Perceptual mungkin menyebabkan defisit dalam di tindakan (untuk menyentuh-persepsi-berhubungan defisit, melihat Robles-De-La-Torre 2006).