Senin, 28 Desember 2009

PENGERTIAN DAN MACAM VARIABEL

A. Pengertian
Di dalam melaksanakan penelitian, variabel tidak kalah penting bagi peneliti untuk dipahami dengan baik. Menurut Sutrisno hadi yang di Sunting oleh Suharsimi dalam bukunya “Prosedur Penelitian {2006}” variabel adalah obyek penelitian yang bervariasi, misalnya jenis kelamin, karena jenis kelamin mempunyai variasi : laki-laki, perempuan; berat badan karena ada 40 kg, dan sebagainya
Sedangkan menurut Mohammad Nazir Ph.D di dalam bukunya menyatakan bahwa variabel adalah konsep yang mempunyai bermacam-macam nilai. Badan, misalnya, adalah konsep dan bukan variabel, karena badan tersebut tidak mempunyai keragaman nilai, sebaliknya berat badan adalah variabel karena badan tersebut mempunyai keragaman nilai, bisa 45 kg atau 100kg .
Sedangkan menurut prof.dr.sugioyono yang terdapat dalam bukunya yang berjudul statistika untuk penelitian mendefinisikan variabel secara teoritis asalah sebuah atribut seseorang atau obyek yang mempunyai “variasi” antara satu oarangh dengan orang yang yang lain atau satu obyek dengan obyek yang lain, tapi menurut Hatch dan farhady, 198, mendifinisikan sebuah variabel merupakan sebuah atribut sari sebuah keilmuan atau kegiatan tertentu, tinggi berat badan, sikap motivasi, kedisiplinan, kerja, merupakan sebuah atribut daei setiap orang, sedangkan, berat, ukuran, warna merupakan atribut-atrbut dari obyek atau bahan baku, pabrik teknologi imi merupakan contoh dari variabel dalam kegitan atau ilmu bisnis, tapi kalau menurut 0Karlingger menyatakan vaeiabel adalah sebuah sifat yang harus bdi pelajari
Tapi menurt kidder (1981)mendefisikan variabel adalah sebuah kualitas (qualities) da mana peneliti meneliti dan menarik kesimpulan darinya.

B. Macam-Macam Variabel
Variabel dapat di bedakan atas kuantitatif dan kualitatif
Variabel kuantitatif dapat di bedakan atas dua kelompok , yaitu variabel discrit dan variabel continuum ( discrete and continuous )
a) Variabel dikrit : disebut juga variabel nominal atau variabel kategori karena hanya dapat di bedakan atas dua kutub yang berlawanan yakni “ya” dan “ tidak” misalnya hadir - tidak hadir , “atas- bawah” . angaka-angka yang di gunakan dalam variabel diskrit untuk menghitung angak- angka banyaknya pria yang hadir dan yang tidak hadir
b) Variabel continuum, dan variabel ini terbagi menjadi tiga variabel kecil
a. Variabel ordinal, yaitu variabel yang menunjukkan tingkatan- tingkatan, misalnya panjang dan kurang panjang, pendek. Untuk kata lain variabel “kurang panjang” karena yang satu lebih panjang dari pada yang lain.
b. variabel interval: yaitu variabel yang mempunyai jarak jika di banding variabel yang lain. Sedang diri sendiri dapat di ketahui dengan pasti. misalnya: suhu udara di luar 310 C. suhu tubuh kita 370 C. Maka selisih 60 C.
c. variabel ratio: yaitu variabel perbandingan. Variabel ini hubungan dalam sesamanya “sekian kali”. Contoh: berat pak rahmat 70 kg, sedang B anaknya 35 maka pak Rahmat dua kali berat anaknya.

PERSEPSI I
Dalam psikologi dan ilmu pengetahuan kognitif, persepsi adalah proses memperoleh, menterjemahkan, memilih, dan mengorganisasikan informasi indrawi. Kata Persepsi berasal dari bahasa Latin persepsi-percepio, yang berarti "menerima-berkumpul, tindakan mengambil , kecemasan dengan pikiran atau pengertian." Metode studi persepsi adalah bagian dari pendekatan biologis pada hakekatnya atau faali, lewat pendekatan psikologis lewat filsafat pikiran dan di empiricist epistemologi, seperti yang dipunyai David Hume, John Locke, George Berkeley, atau sebagai di penegasan Merleau Ponty persepsi sebagai dasar semua ilmu pengetahuan dan pengetahuan.
Sejarah penelitian persepsi

Persepsi adalah salah satu bidang yang paling tua dalam psikologi ilmiah, dan ada secara Berkorespondensi banyak teori tentang proses akarnya. Peraturan kuantitatif yang paling tua di psikologi adalah undang-undang Weber-Fechner, yang mengukur hubungan intensitas perangsang fisik dan efek persepsi mereka. Hal tersebut merupakan penelitian terhadap persepsi yang menimbulkan sekolah Gestalt psikologi, dengan tekanannya pada pendekatan holistis

Persepsi dan Realita
Banyak psikolog kognitif bertahan bahwa, sewaktu kami berpindah-pindah di dunia, kami membuat model bagaimana dunia berjalan. Itu ialah, kami merasa dunia obyektif, tetapi peta sensasi kami ke percepts, dan yang ini percepts sementara, di pengertian sama bahwa hipotesa ilmiah sementara (CF. di metode ilmiah). Sewaktu kami memperoleh informasi baru, kami percepts pindah. Abraham Pais biografi merujuk ke 'esemplastic' alam imajinasi. Di kasus persepsi visual, beberapa orang sebetulnya bisa melihat percept pindah di mata pikiran mereka. Orang lain yang tidak adalah ahli pikir gambar, secara perlu mungkin tidak merasa 'berubah bentuk' sewaktu dunia mereka berganti. 'Esemplastic' alam sudah diperlihatkan dengan eksperimen: tamsilan ambigu mempunyai interpretasi lipat ganda di perceptual rata. Baru saja selama satu benda bisa putus naik ke lipat ganda percepts, oleh sebab itu benda mungkin gagal untuk menimbulkan yang mana pun percept di semua: jika percept mempunyai bukan melarang terbang di pengalaman orang, orang secara harfiah mungkin tidak melihatnya.
Ketakjelasan membingungkan persepsi ini dieksploitasi di teknologi manusiawi seperti kamuflase, dan juga di mimikri biologis, misalnya oleh kupu-kupu Merak, yang sayapnya memikul tanda mata yang ditanggapi oleh burung sebagai meskipun mereka adalah mata predator berbahaya. Teori kognitif persepsi mengasumsikan ada kemiskinan perangsang. Ini (dengan referensi sampai persepsi) adalah klaim bahwa sensasi, sendiri, tak dapat menyediakan deskripsi unik dunia. Sensasi memerlukan 'memperkaya', yang adalah tugas model jiwa. Berbeda macam teori perceptual ekologi pendekatan James J. Gibson. Gibson menolak penerimaan kemiskinan perangsang dengan menolak maksud persepsi itu didasarkan di sensasi.
Malahan, dia menyelidiki informasi yang mana sebetulnya diberi ke perceptual sistem. Dia (dan psikolog yang bekerja dalam paradigma ini) memperinci bagaimana dunia bisa ditetapkan ke seekor jasad menjelajahi yang bisa berpindah-pindah via penonjolan sah informasi di sekitar dunia ke dalam pajangan-pajangan tenaga. Spesifikasi 1:1 pempetaan suatu aspek dunia ke dalam perceptual mengatur; diberi seperti itu memetakan, tak ada pemerkayaan diperlukan dan persepsi langsung.
Persepsi sebagai Kesatuan Consciousness
Di filsafat Objectivist, sensasi tidak dipertahankan di kenangan tetapi objek persepsi Is. Persepsi, tak ada sensasi, terbukti dengan sendirinya "givens." Epistemologi di filsafat akan mencek sifat persepsi. Untuk melakukan ini, sesuatu mengetahui terlebih dulu entitas. Buatan proses verifikasi identiy itu dengan membuat ukuran, i.e., perbandingan otomatis. Contoh: anda pengertian sesuatu (entitas) itu mempunyai empat kaki dan permukaan datar yang besar (epistemological ukuran). Lalu anda menyamakannya dengan hal penampilan mirip lain dan memutuskan adalah meja. Kesadaran (persepsi) dan ukuran (empat legs;large datar tertinggi) adalah elemen pokok kesadaran. Integrasi jiwa sebanyak dua atau lebih percepts membuat konsep [kutipan perlu].
Persepsi Dalam Tindakan
Persepsi-di-Tindakan pengertian ekologis persepsi yang dimajukan dari kerja awal Gibson ialah persepsi-di-tindakan, maksud bahwa persepsi adalah tanah milik diharuskan menghidupkan tindakan, tanpa tindakan persepsi tidak akan dituntun dan tanpa persepsi tindakan akan tiada artinya. Hidupkan tindakan memerlukan merasa dan berpindah bersama. Dalam arti, "persepsi dan gerak-gerik adalah dua pihak uang logam sama, uang logam adalah tindakan." (D.N. Lee). Matematis teori persepsi-di-tindakan sudah dipikirkan dan diselidiki di banyak bentuk gerak-gerik terkendali di samping banyak spesies berbeda jasad, Jenderal Tau Theory. Menurut teori ini, tau informasi, atau waktu-ke-cita-cita informasi adalah pokok 'percept' di persepsi.
Persepsi Dan Tindakan
Kami mengumpulkan informasi di sekitar dunia dan bergaul dengannya lewat tindakan kami. Informasi Perceptual kritis untuk tindakan. Defisit Perceptual mungkin menyebabkan defisit dalam di tindakan (untuk menyentuh-persepsi-berhubungan defisit, melihat Robles-De-La-Torre 2006).

Self-perception

Self-perception theory (SPT) is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem[1] [2] It asserts that we develop our attitudes by observing our behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused them. The theory is counterintuitive in nature noting that we always presume that attitudes come prior to behaviors. Furthermore, the theory suggests that a person induces his attitudes without accessing to his internal cognition and mood states.[3] He reasons his own overt behaviors rationally in the same way he attempts to explain others’ behaviors.
Experiment of Self-perception theory

In an attempt to decide whether a person induces his/her attitude as an observer without accessing his/her internal states, Bem looked into the interpersonal simulations, in which an “observer-participant” is given a detailed description of one condition of a cognitive dissonance experiment. Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task. Some subjects were told that the man had been paid $20 for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid $1. Those in the latter condition thought that the man must have enjoyed the task more than those in the $20 condition. The results obtained were similar to the original Festinger-Carlsmith experiment. Because the observers, who did not have access to the actors’ internal cognition and mood states, were able to infer the true attitude of the actors, it is possible that the actors themselves also arrive at their attitudes by looking at their own behavior from an observer’s standpoint.
Evidence of Self-perception theory

There are numerous researches conducted by psychologists that support the self-perception theory, demonstrating that emotions do follow behaviors. For example, it is found that corresponding emotions (including liking, disliking, happiness, anger, etc.) were reported following from their overt behaviors, which had been manipulated by the experimenters.[4] These behaviors included making different facial expressions, gazes and postures. In the end of the experiment, subjects inferred and reported their affections and attitudes from their practiced behaviors despite the fact that they were told previously to act that way.

Evidence of the self-perception theory can also be seen in real life situations. After teenagers participated in repeated and sustained volunteering services, their attitudes were demonstrated to have shifted to be more caring and considerate towards others.[5]

Challenges and criticisms
The self-perception theory was intially proposed as an alternative to explain the experimental findings of the cognitive dissonance theory, and there were debates as to whether people experience attitude changes as an effort to reduce dissonance or as a result of self-perception processes. Basing on the fact that the self-perception theory differs from the cognitive dissonance theory in that it does not hold that people experience a "negative drive state" called "dissonance" which they seek to relieve, the following experiment was carried out to compare the two theories under different conditions.

An early study on cognitive dissonance theory shows that people indeed experience arousal when their behavior is inconsistent with their previous attitude. Waterman[13] designed an experiment in which participants were asked to write an essay arguing against the position they agreed. Then they were asked immediately to perform a simple task and a difficult task and their performance in both tasks were assessed. It was found that they performed better in the simple task and worse in the difficult task, compared to those who had just written an essay corresponding to their true attitude. As indicated by social facilitation, enhanced performance in simple tasks and worsened performance in difficult tasks shows that arousal is produced by people when their behavior is inconsistent with their attitude. Therefore, the cognitive dissonance theory is evident in this case.

Whether cognitive dissonance or self-perception is a more useful theory is a topic of considerable controversy and a large body of literature. There are some circumstances where either theory is preferred, but it is traditional to use the terminology of cognitive dissonance theory by default. The cognitive dissonance theory accounts attitude changes when people’s behaviors are inconsistent with their original attitudes which are clear and important to them; while the self-perception theory is used when those original attitudes are relatively ambiguous and less important. Studies have shown that in constrast to traditional belief, a large proportion of people’s attitudes are weak and vague. Thus, the self-perception theory is signficant in interpreting one’s own attitudes, such as one’s assessment of one’s personality traits[14] [15] and whether one would cheat to achieve a goal. [16]
http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Self_perception


2009

CONTENTS
CONTENTS
BAB I : INTRODUCTION
1. Background
2. Statement of Problem
3. Purpose
BAB II : DISCUSSION
A. Definition
B. The Importance of Cooperative Learning in English Program
1. Main Elements of Cooperative Learning
2. The Advantages of Cooperative Learning
C. Cooperative Learning Activities of English Program in SMA NEGERI I Kertosono Nganjuk
BAB III : CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY







CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background Study
English is very important in human life, because English has been used as an international language since many years ago. Nowadays, everything is by English, such as using technology, business, education, politics, etc. Therefore, everybody especially students have to pay more attention to learn English. This era require them to be master in English. Considering its importance many people of all around the world learn it.
There are 4 skills that have to be mastered by students in learning English language, namely: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. To be a good language user, someone has to master those skills, in reality; however, it is hard to do it. Therefore, schools or teachers have to pay more attention in determining the method that will be used in English teaching process. It tends to help students to be able to learn English easily. Teacher has to use the method that will make students easy to understand the materials and they can enjoy the class.
Cooperative learning is one of the methods which is used by many teachers to teach English. Recently, it is considered as a good way or method in teaching English. This cooperative learning method is used by many schools or teachers in teaching English especially by SMA Negeri I Kertosono Nganjuk East Java. Since many years ago this school use this method in teaching English with consideration that in small groups, students can share strengths and also develop their weaker skills. They develop their interpersonal skills. They learn to deal with conflict. When cooperative groups are guided by clear objectives, students engage in numerous activities that improve their understanding of subjects explored.
In order to create an environment in which cooperative learning can take place, three things are necessary. First, students need to feel safe, but also challenged. Second, groups need to be small enough that everyone can contribute. Third, the students’ task work together on must be clearly defined.

B. Statement Of Problem
Based on the background above, the writer would like to formulate the following problems:
1. What is cooperative learning?
2. Why is cooperative learning important in English program?
3. How is cooperative learning used in English program in SMA Negeri I Kertosono Nganjuk ?

C. Purpose
Related to the statements of the problem, the purposes of writing this paper are as follow:
1. To describe the definition of cooperative learning
2. To describe the importance of cooperative learning in English program
3. To describe the cooperative learning activities in English program in SMA Negeri I Kertosono Nganjuk









CHAPTER II
INTRODUCTION
A. Definition
Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals. Within cooperative activities individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members. Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning. The idea is simple. Class members are organized into small groups after receiving instruction from the teacher. They then work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
B. The Importance Of Cooperative Learning in English Program
In cooperative learning, students work together in small groups on a structured activity. They are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the group as a whole is also assessed. Cooperative groups work face-to-face and learn to work as a team.
Also, in cooperative learning small groups provide a place where:
• learners actively participate;
• teachers become learners at times, and learners sometimes teach;
• respect is given to every member;
• projects and questions interest and challenge students;
• diversity is celebrated, and all contributions are valued;
• students learn skills for resolving conflicts when they arise;
• members draw upon their past experience and knowledge;
• goals are clearly identified and used as a guide;
• research tools such as Internet access are made available;
• Students are invested in their own learning.
Working cooperatively enables students to develop essential English communication skills, including the oral language skills involved in social interaction, such as listening, taking turns, making eye contact and using quiet voices, using people names, making positive comments about others' work, building on others' contributions, encouraging people to continue, using receptive body language, sharing ideas, asking for help, and encouraging others to share ideas. As well, talk can be used for developing problem-solving skills. The abilities to elaborate, paraphrase, clarify, summarize, mediate and reach decisions, which are important aspects of successfully using different language modes, are all learned and reinforced through cooperative learning.
1. Main Elements Of Cooperative Learning
The essential components of cooperation are positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual and group accountability, interpersonal and small group skills, and group processing (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1993). Systematically structuring those basic elements into group learning situations helps ensure cooperative efforts and enables the disciplined implementation of cooperative learning for long-term success.
Positive interdependence

The students work on a clear task with a group goal. All students must make a contribution or the goal cannot be achieved.
Individual and group accountability The group is accountable for achieving its goals and each individual member is accountable for a particular, identifiable contribution.
Face to face interaction Students interact with each other face to face as part of the task. They discuss problems, explain their learning to each other, and tease out ideas. It is not possible simply to divide up the work and do it without further interaction.
Interpersonal and
small-group skills Skills such as attentive listening, questioning to clarify ideas, eliciting responses, or disagreeing in a constructive way are explicitly taught. Their development is not left to chance.
Group processing Groups reflect on the cooperative learning skills they have used and consciously focus on developing their skills in working together.
2. The Advantages of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning is an incredibly powerful way of learning. In recent times, a great deal of research into the value of cooperative learning has been done. Johnson and Johnson (1987) produced overwhelming evidence that cooperative learning experiences promoted higher academic achievement than individualistic or competitive learning experiences. He also found that social interaction leads to more advanced cognitive development. Based on this research, he suggests that if schools are to provide for the optimal intellectual development of their students, they must actively encourage the development of cooperative skills. This will result in:
• the development of thinking skills and deeper levels of understanding
• a more enjoyable learning environment
• the development of leadership skills
• the promotion of positive attitudes to English
• the promotion of self-esteem and a sense of belonging
• better access to a multi-layered curriculum for inclusive learning.
Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members:
• gain from each other's efforts. (Your success benefits me and my success benefits you.)
• recognize that all group members share a common fate. (We all sink or swim together here.)
• know that one's performance is mutually caused by oneself and one's team members. (We can not do it without you.)
• feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized for achievement. (We all congratulate you on your accomplishment!).
Other research has shown that cooperative learning techniques:
• promote student learning and academic achievement
• increase student retention
• enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience
• help students develop skills in oral communication
• develop students' social skills
• promote student self-esteem
• help to promote positive race relations
C. Cooperative Learning Activities Of English Program In SMA NEGERI I Kertosono Nganjuk
Why should high school teachers use cooperative learning in their classrooms? High school students need the maximum amount of time possible for comprehending and using the English language in a low-risk environment in order to approach the language proficiency level of their peers. Cooperative learning provides the structure for this to happen. Teachers should consider the question, "What is the best use of my students' time?" With approximately forty students in a classroom who can interact and negotiate meaning, a teacher needs to take advantage of this environment for language acquisition. Reading and writing answers to questions can be done at home, thereby providing more time in the classroom for interactive, cooperative structures in which students are learning from each other.
High school students face demanding academic tasks. These students must make acceptable scores on English language proficiency tests. They also take a number of standardized English language tests in reading, mathematics, and science. Each of these tasks requires a thorough knowledge of English. Unfortunately, many students lack the English language and test-taking skills required to do well on these tasks.
Therefore English teachers of SMA NEGERI I Kertosono Nganjuk use the following cooperative activities in their English program to support their students in learning English:
1. Jigsaw: Groups with five students are set up. Each group member is assigned some unique material to learn and then to teach to his group members. To help in the learning students across the class working on the same sub-section get together to decide what is important and how to teach it. After practice in these "expert" groups the original groups reform and students teach each other.
2. Think-Pair-Share: Involves a three step cooperative structure. During the first step individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. In the third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire group.
3. Three-Step-Interview: Each member of a team chooses another member to be a partner. During the first step individuals interview their partners by asking clarifying questions. During the second step partners reverse the roles. For the
final step, members share their partner's response with the team.
4. Three Minute Reviews: Teachers stop any time during discussion and give teams three minutes to review what has been said, ask clarifying questions or answer questions.
5. Numbered Heads Together: A team of four is established. Each member is given numbers of 1, 2, 3, 4. Questions are asked of the group. Groups work together to answer the question so that all can verbally answer the question. Teacher calls out a number (two) and each two is asked to give the answer.
6. Partners: The class is divided into teams of four. Partners move to one side of the room. Half of each team is given an assignment to master to be able to teach the other half. Partners work to learn and can consult with other partners working on the same material. Teams go back together with each set of partners teaching the other set. Partners quiz and tutor teammates. Team reviews how well they learned and taught and how they might improve the process.
English teacher of SMA Negeri I Kertosono use each of these activities by turns for every meeting. Before determining the activities that will be used in the class, teacher will determine the material that will be given to the students. Then teacher combine the materials and the selected activities, it tend to make sure that the activity is suitable for the material that will be given. Because if the material is not appropriated to the activities it will not become a good cooperative learning activities, and it will give no any benefit to the students.





CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION

Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
Working cooperatively enables students to develop essential English communication skills, including the oral language skills involved in social interaction, such as listening, taking turns, making eye contact and using quiet voices, using people names, making positive comments about others' work, building on others' contributions, encouraging people to continue, using receptive body language, sharing ideas, asking for help, and encouraging others to share ideas. As well, talk can be used for developing problem-solving skills. The abilities to elaborate, paraphrase, clarify, summarize, mediate and reach decisions, which are important aspects of successfully using different language modes, are all learned and reinforced through cooperative learning.
There are some cooperative learning activities which are used in SMA Negeri I Kertosono Nganjuk East Java, such as jigsaw, think-pair-share, three-step interview, three-minute review, numbered heads together, and partners. Before determining the activities that will be used in the class, teacher will determine the material that will be given to the student. Then teacher combine the materials and the selected activities, it tend to make sure that the activity is suitable for the material that will be given.



BIBLIOGRAPHY
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (1987). Joining together: Group theory and group skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Johnson, D. W. (1993). Reaching out: Interpersonal effectiveness and self-actualization (6th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/pigs/pig12.htm
http://wwwfp.education.tas.gov.au./English/key.htm
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab/index.html
http://teaching.barkeley.edu/bgd/collaborative.html


Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village, though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound's the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.


2.The poem is about the speaker’s experience of stopping by the dark woods in the winter evening with his horse and admiring the beauty of the fresh fallen snow in the forest

3.In the first stanza, I think that the speaker is familiar with the land; he knows the individual who “owns” the woods; but that owner doesn’t live on this land instead he lives in the village.
The speaker implies that he is trespassing someone’s property but he doesn’t need to worry because that person is in the village and not there anywhere around. So, it’s not an ethical problem for him. He is not ashamed of trespassing somebody’s property. Instead, taking advantage of the moment


1. In the
poem, “Stopping by Woods in a Snowy Evening”, the speaker is attracted and
tempted by the beauty of nature. Even though he wants to stay longer in the
woods, he has responsibilities and other obligations he has to attend.


4.
In the last two stanzas displays the commitment
to his family but also the commitment that the every day person carries and
has to complete before our closure in life.
Essay

Topic sentence : my father is advisable parent of his sons


Last year, there was a child the name is Ahmad Sholeh, he stayed in village side, exactly, bangkalan village. At the time, he was funny and handsome a child, because of that, all of children are like to play and enjoy together. Ahmad Sholeh has small body, black hear, black skin and sweet.
As boy, Ahmad Sholeh has good characteristics, like, help his parent to does something, beside that he also help neighbor and other people, he was also patient boy, and than he was strong boy in the surrounding.
One day, his parents asked him to take some water in the river, at the time, he was saw a beautiful girl whom was taking water, Ahmad Sholeh want to help her, but the girl does want, than they introduced each other. Unpredictable they have same feeling, it was fall the firs sight, so, they want to get married, Ahmad Sholeh ask to his parent to offer her to married, and then, his parent agree with him. And the wedding ceremony happened.
After he was getting married, Ahmad Sholeh and his wife are stay together and then the finally they have sons. Ahmad Sholeh love and affection to his sons very much. He was father whom was responsible to his family. he was advisable of his sons, never differentiate among them. So that his sons his wife affection with him.
In conclusion, Ahmad Sholeh has good characteristics, like help his parent and neighbor and other people .beside that, he also patient and strong boy. When he was married and has sons, he always responsible to his family, example, if his family has serious problem he was always gave a good solution.


• Informasi Umum


• Persyaratan Umum


• Jadwal


• Bidang Studi


• Tanya-Jawab


• Formulir


• Berita





PERTANYAAN YANG SERING DIAJUKAN

Apakah Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP)?
Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP) adalah program beasiswa terbesar dari The Ford Foundation, organisasi nirlaba yang berpusat di New York, Amerika Serikat. Program ini menyediakan beasiswa pascasarjana bagi anggota masyarakat yang kurang memiliki kesempatan untuk menempuh pendidikan tinggi, antara lain penduduk yang tinggal di daerah terpencil, masyarakat adat, masyarakat terpinggirkan, atau masyarakat yang berada di daerah konflik/pascakonflik, juga golongan minoritas etnik, penderita cacat fisik/sensorik dan kaum perempuan.
Siapakah yang mengelola IFP di Indonesia?
Di Indonesia, IFP dikelola oleh The Indonesian International Education Foundation (IIEF), sebuah lembaga pendidikan nirlaba swasta yang bergerak di bidang pengembangan dan pertukaran pendidikan serta pelatihan, yang bertujuan menumbuhkan rasa saling pengertian antarbangsa. IIEF telah berpengalaman dalam mengelola berbagai program beasiswa yang didanai oleh lembaga donor internasional.
Siapa saja yang memenuhi syarat untuk memperoleh beasiswa IFP di Indonesia?
Pelamar harus berasal dari masyarakat yang kurang memiliki kesempatan untuk menempuh pendidikan tinggi, misalnya berasal dari daerah terpencil, daerah konflik/pascakonflik, anggota masyarakat adat, anggota masyarakat terpinggirkan, anggota golongan minoritas etnik, atau penderita cacat fisik/sensorik. Pelamar harus memiliki kewarganegaraan Indonesia dan bertempat tinggal di Indonesia. Persyaratan lainnya yang harus dipenuhi pelamar, yaitu telah menyelesaikan program studi Sarjana (S1 atau S2) dengan prestasi yang sangat baik, berperan aktif dalam masyarakat atau komunitasnya, memiliki rencana kerja untuk menerapkan apa yang akan dipelajarinya sesuai dengan tujuan-tujuan Ford Foundation, dan memiliki komitmen untuk melaksanakan rencana kerja itu setelah menyelesaikan masa studinya. Pelamar perempuan sangat dianjurkan untuk mendaftar.
Bidang studi atau displin ilmu apa saja yang dapat dipilih?
Bidang studi atau disiplin ilmu yang dapat dipilih harus sesuai dengan tujuan-tujuan Ford Foundation, yaitu memperkuat nilai-nilai demokratis, mengurangi kemiskinan dan ketidakadilan, mendukung kerjasama internasional, dan meningkatkan karya manusia. Selain itu, harus sesuai dengan salah satu dari ke-limabelas bidang Ford Foundation.
Klik pada Bidang Studi untuk melihat daftar contoh bidang studi atau disiplin ilmu yang dapat dipilih.
Jika saya terpilih untuk menerima beasiswa IFP, negara mana sajakah yang dapat dijadikan negara tujuan studi?
Anda dapat menempuh studi di negara mana saja. Pelamar dianjurkan untuk memilih studi di luar negeri.
Universitas mana sajakah yang boleh dipilih untuk universitas tujuan studi?
FAnda dapat memilih universitas mana saja di seluruh dunia, dengan syarat universitas tersebut terakreditasi sesuai dengan peraturan pemerintah setempat.
Bolehkah universitas tujuan studi saya pilih sendiri, atau apakah IFP yang akan menentukannya?
Pelamar boleh menentukan sendiri pilihan universitas tujuan studinya. Setelah terpilih untuk menerima beasiswa, jika kandidat belum dapat menentukan pilihan universitas tujuan studinya, IFP akan membantu memberikan pilihan yang sesuai kemampuan dan kebutuhannya.
Jika saya saat ini sedang menempuh studi pascasarjana di dalam negeri, dapatkah saya melamar guna memperoleh beasiswa IFP?
Jika Anda sedang menempuh studi pascasarjana di dalam negeri, Anda tidak berhak untuk melamar guna memperoleh beasiswa IFP.
Jika saya saat ini sedang menempuh studi pascasarjana di luar negeri, atau lulus dari universitas di luar negeri, dapatkah saya melamar guna memperoleh beasiswa IFP?
Jika Anda sedang menempuh studi pascasarjana di luar negeri, atau telah lulus dari perguruan tinggi di luar negeri, Anda tidak berhak untuk melamar guna memperoleh beasiswa IFP.
Jika saya seorang warganegara Indonesia, tapi saat ini sedang belajar atau bertempat tinggal di luar negeri, dapatkah saya melamar untuk memperoleh beasiswa IFP?
Walaupun Anda seorang warganegara Indonesia, jika Anda sedang belajar atau bertempat tinggal di luar negeri, Anda tidak berhak untuk melamar guna memperoleh beasiswa IFP.
Apakah kemampuan berbahasa Inggris menjadi salah satu kriteria seleksi?
Pelamar tidak diharuskan untuk memenuhi persyaratan minimum bahasa Inggris, mengingat negara tujuan studi bukan hanya negara-negara yang berbahasa Inggris saja. Namun, diharapkan pada waktu seleksi tahap wawancara pelamar dapat menunjukkan bukti kemampuan berbahasa Inggris (misalnya nilai TOEFL, IELTS) atau bahasa asing lainnya. IFP akan menyediakan kursus bahasa Inggris atau bahasa asing lainnya jika diperlukan, sebelum kandidat berangkat ke negara tujuan studinya.
Bagaimanakah proses seleksi dilaksanakan?
Pelamar harus mengisi dan menyerahkan formulir prapendaftaran ke kantor IIEF di Jakarta. IIEF akan menyeleksi semua lamaran yang masuk dengan melibatkan panel-panel seleksi di tingkat daerah maupun di tingkat nasional. Anggota panel seleksi daerah dan nasional terdiri dari para pakar dan praktisi di berbagai bidang akademik.
Apa saja yang disediakan oleh IFP bagi pelamar yang lulus seleksi sebelum berangkat ke negara tujuan studi?
IFP menyediakan kursus pelatihan bahasa asing, kursus komputer, pelatihan ketrampilan penelitian, orientasi budaya dan akademik. IFP juga menanggung biaya untuk tes atau ujian syarat masuk universitas, seperti TOEFL, IELTS, GRE, dll.
Biaya apa saja yang ditanggung oleh IFP untuk keperluan studi pascasarjana di luar negeri?
IFP menyediakan biaya perjalanan ke negara tujuan studi pulang-pergi, biaya persiapan sebelum berangkat (pembuatan paspor, visa studi, pemeriksaan medis, dll.), biaya kuliah, tunjangan hidup (tempat tinggal, makan, dll.), asuransi kesehatan, dan biaya terkait lainnya.
Berapakah biaya yang disediakan bagi masing-masing Fellow?
Biaya yang disediakan bergantung pada berbagai faktor, misalnya biaya hidup di negara/kota tujuan studi, dan biaya kuliah di universitas tujuan studi. Tidak ada jumlah dana yang seragam yang diberikan kepada masing-masing Fellow.
Dimanakah saya dapat memperoleh formulir prapendaftaran dan informasi lebih lanjut?
Untuk formulir prapendaftaran dan informasi lebih lanjut hubungi
The Indonesian International Education Foundation (IIEF)
Menara Imperium lantai 28 suite B
Jalan H.R. Rasuna Said, Jakarta 2980
Telp. (021) 8317330, Faks. (021) 8317331
E-mail: ifp@iief.or.id



ANTASARI AZHAR: JATUHNYA PAHLAWAN DARI MASA KEJAYAAN.

berita utama pada bulan pebruari pada paper ini adalah pada pejabat komisi pemberantas korupsi {KPK} antasari azar membaca" dalam negara indonesi , keagunganya dapat merubah ketajaman dalam beberapa bulan yang singkat jika seseorang dapat memaksimalkan kekuasan mereka untuk sebuah alasan yang bagus .

masalah sengit kembali menimpa antasari azhar ,56.pada, saat ini bentuk tuduhan di arahkan ke otak pembunuhan seoarang bisnis Nasruddin dzulqornaen.

Roda keberuntungan antasari berputar cepat-cepat bagi antasari, tadinya derektor jaksa agung muda penuntut umum bagi kejahatan umum pada kantor umum jaksa agung
ketua KPK.dia awalnya berkata, apaka puncak karirku.

sebelum polisi meletakkannya dalam tahan, dia menyingkirkan pada tahanan yang paling atas., termasuk juga pusat bank deput, kantor jaksa agung dan DPR.

Majalah rolling stone Indonesia, bahkan penyamaan Antasari, lahir di pangkal pinang Riu Maret 18, 1953 dengan tidak dapat di sentuh Elliot Ness, yang meletakkan bos ,mafia. al capone dibelakang bar. nasruddin terbunuh pada bulan Maret saat menyupir tertembak di lapangan golf Tangerang. AGO menyatakan Antasari di curigai membunuh pada hari minggu, polisis mengizinkan introgasi pada hari senin.

1.Pengumuman keterlibat pada kasus selama dua minggu setelah ketua KPK meluncurkan kasus yang baru: sebuah investigasi dalam memperoleh alat elektronik digunakan untuk komisi pemilihan umum (KPU) berikut kegagalan daftar jumnlah suara legislatif.
2. KPU melengkapi dengan Rp. 170M piece of software berjanji untyuk menyelesaikan menghitung suara dalam waktu 2 minggu.
3. Pusat pengelolahan elektronik telah ditutup selama dua minggu setalah perhitungan suara, walaupun hanya memperoleh 13 juta dari- perkiraan 125 juta suara tertinggi.
4. penghitungan KPU memberikan Susilao Bambang Yudoyono sebagai kepala partai demokrat dalam jumlah suara 20,5 % suara.
5. denagn tuduhan Antasari sekarang ayah dari dua anak ini tidak akna bisa leas dari investigasi dari kasusnya.
7. Antasari terpilih di bulan desember 2007. awalnya dicela atas jejak rekornay, kritikan-kritikan yang menunjukkan atas ilegalya atas sahnya Antasari untuk dituntut oleh Dewan lokal atas ditemukannya kesalahan oleh pejabat tinggi, dan bagaimana dia menyalah gunakan uang bantuan dari presiden Soeharto anak Hotomo putra Mandala kerajaannay. rumor menyatakan bahwa dia telah disuap yang tiudak pernah dibuktikan dan atasari berusaha menyangkalnya.
8. kasus pembunuhan itu nyata pada awalnya menyikat dengan pelaksanaan hukum.





Using peer feedback in the ESL
writing class
Paul Rollinson





Although both research and practice have generally supported the use of peer
feedback activities in ESL and L2 writing classes, many teachers (and most
students) are less than convinced of its usefulness in their own particular
situation. The objective of this article is to brie?y summarize some of the main arguments in favour and against peer feedback, and to explain how teachers
can establish a positive context for e=ective peer group response by organizing
proper procedures and training.
Introduction Although in recent years the use of peer feedback in English as a Second
Language (ESL ) writing classrooms has been generally supported in the literature as a potentially valuable aid for its social, cognitive, a=ective, and methodological bene>ts (see, for example, Mendonça and Johnson 1994; Villamil and de Guerrero 1996), doubts on the part of many ESL teachers and students are not uncommon. Teachers may question its value within their particular context, or wonder how such a time
consuming activity can be reconciled with course or examination
constraints. Students may have even more doubts: they are uncertain
about its purpose and advantages, they may feel instinctively that only a better writer—or a native speaker—is quali>ed to judge or comment on their written work. They may feel that feedback received from classmates whose English level is more or less the same as theirs is a poor alternative to the ‘real thing’—that is, the teacher’s periodic red-penned notations.
Sadly, these perceptions may prevent a teacher from engaging students
in what can be, given the right conditions, a highly pro>table interaction on many counts. This paper, then, will discuss some of these real
concerns, and also focus on some of the practical issues concerning how to use peer response to advantage in the ESL writing classroom.
A substantial amount of research has been done over the last two decades into the value of di=erent kinds of response o=ered to student writers, both in L1, and increasingly in L2. Studies have typically focused either on teacher or peer response, or have compared both, and have looked at di=erent kinds of response (e.g. praise or criticism, intervention versus >nal draft comments, grading versus non-grading, and so on) and their e=ect on student attitudes to and performance in writing (see, for
example, Berg 1999; Jacobs et al. 1998). Some of the more signi>cant (not to say obvious) insights that have emerged are the following, in no

ELT Journal Volume 59/1 January 2005 © Oxford University Press 23
doi: 10.1093/elt/cci003



particular order: good writing requires revision; writers need to write for a speci>c audience; writing should involve multiple drafts with
intervention response at the various draft stages; peers can provide useful feedback at various levels; training students in peer response leads to better revisions and overall improvements in writing quality; and teacher and peer feedback is best seen as complementary (see, for example,
Chaudron 1984; Zamel 1985; Mendonça and Johnson 1994; Berg 1999).
However, it is true that less than pro>table interactions have been found
within peer groups, sometimes because of the participants’ lack of trust
in the accuracy, sincerity, and speci>city of the comments of their peers
(Zhang 1995). Certainly the often promoted a=ective advantages of peer
response over teacher response (less threatening, less authoritarian,
friendlier, more supportive, and so on) have not been immediately
recognized by students, nor indeed supported by research. In several
studies, peer feedback has been judged by the participants as less helpful than the teacher’s feedback, and in one case even less useful than an NS
friend or grammar book (Leki 1991).
However, once the peer response process is underway, the writer’s
perception of the value of the enterprise is likely to change if she begins to receive useful feedback, or >nds that commenting on essays is helping her to be more critical of her own writing. For this to happen, however, the class has to be set up properly. Failure to establish proper procedures, or to engage in pre-training, is quite likely to result in less than pro>table response activities. These issues will be dealt with in more detail below.
Why use peer There are a number of reasons why teachers have chosen to use peer
feedback? feedback in the ESL writing classroom.
Response and Peer readers can provide useful feedback. For example, Rollinson (1998)
revision found high levels of valid feedback among his college-level students:
80% of comments were considered valid, and only 7% were potentially damaging. Caulk (1994) had similar results: 89% of his
intermediate/advanced level FL students made comments he felt were useful, and 60% made suggestions that he himself had not made when looking at the papers. He also found very little bad advice.
It has also been shown that peer writers can and do revise e=ectively on
the basis of comments from peer readers. Mendonça and Johnson’s
(1994) study showed that 53% of revisions made were incorporations of
peer comments. Rollinson (1998) found even higher levels of uptake of
reader feedback, and 65% of comments were accepted either completely or partially by readers.
Another reason why peer feedback has been adopted is that it tends to be of a di=erent kind from that of the teacher: Caulk (1994) found that
teacher feedback was rather general, whereas student responses were
more speci>c. Thus it can be seen as complementary, as Berg (1999) and Chaudron (1984) note.
Finally, it may be that becoming a critical reader of others’ writing may make students more critical readers and revisers of their own writing.

24 Paul Rollinson



Audience It is clear that writers need to write for audiences, preferably those that
can give more or less immediate feedback. Most writing done by L2
learners will be for communicative purposes: a responsive ‘real’ audience
will let the writer know if her message was e=ective, and will encourage
the writer to formulate her writing in line with the characteristics and
demands of her readers. Peer audiences are also potentially more
sympathetic than the more distant and possibly more judgemental
teacher audience.
Collaboration and Peer feedback, with its potentially high level of response and interaction
communication between reader and writer can encourage a collaborative dialogue in
which two-way feedback is established, and meaning is negotiated
between the two parties. It also ‘fosters a myriad of communicative
behaviors’ (Villamil and de Guerrero 1996: 69) and highly complex
socio-cognitive interactions involving arguing, explaining, clarifying, and justifying.
Peer response vs. Peer response operates on a more informal level than teacher response.
teacher response This may encourage or motivate writers, or at least provide a change
from (and a complement to) the more one-way interaction between the teacher and the student, where the student may end up making revisions without necessarily agreeing with or even understanding the teacher’s
authoritative comments. The writer receiving comments from peers
retains the right to reject comments, and is thus more able to maintain the possession of her own texts. In any case, teacher feedback may not be nearly as e=ective as has been believed. There may in fact be many
de>ciencies in the written comments of teachers: they have been
criticized as being unspeci>c, incomprehensible, contradictory,
inconsistent, inaccurate, meaningless to the student, vague, over-general, abstract, formulaic and idiosyncratic (see, for example, Zamel 1985).
It is also obvious that peers can spend much more time providing
feedback on an individual draft than the overworked teacher, and there will also be a quicker ‘turnover’ time between >nishing writing a draft and receiving feedback. Thus there is both a higher density of feedback, as well as a more immediate interaction between writer and reader.
Student attitudes Students themselves may not only >nd the peer response experience
‘bene>cial’ (Mendonça and Johnson 1994: 765) and see ‘numerous
advantages’ of working in groups (Nelson and Murphy 1992: 188), but its social dimension can also enhance the participant’s attitudes towards writing (Chaudron 1984).
Problematic aspects Against these enthusiastic claims and generally positive >ndings,
of peer feedback however, the following considerations should be taken into account.
Time constraints Whether feedback is oral or written, the peer response process itself is a
lengthy one. Reading a draft (probably more than once), making notes, then either collaborating with another reader to reach a consensus and write the comments, or engaging orally with the writer in a feedback circle, will consume a signi>cant amount of time.

Using peer feedback in the ESL writing class 25

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FORMAT SILABUS

Nama sekolah : SMP
Mata pelajaran : Bahasa inggris


Kompetensi Dasar INDIKATOR MATERI POKOK PENGLAMAN BELAJAR PENILAIAN ALOKASI
WAKTU SUMBER\
MEDIA/ALAT
Jenis tagihan Bentuk
mengungkapkan makna dalam bentuk teks tulis fungsional pendek sederhana dengan mengunakan ragam bahasa tulis dengan akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungansekitar



- Menulis jenis tek fungsional pendek dan teks recount

- Mengunakan ragam bahasa tulis dengan akurat, lancer


berinteraksi dengan lingkungansekitar
 Teks fungsional berupa: intrucsi daftar barang ucapan selamat penggumuman  mengetahui isi teks tulisan
 cara menulis karangan yang benar
 menulis tulisan sederhana
 menulis teks gambaran sederhana Unjuk kerja

Uraian objektive Portofolio

Isian 30 menit Tek
Ganbar



SISTEM MEMBACA CEPAT
DAN
EFEKTIF


Lembar Komunikasi Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia
SMU Stella Duce 2 Yogyakarta
Jl. Dr. Sutomo 16 Yogyakarta
Telp. (0274) 513129

Disusun oleh
Agustinus Suyoto, S.Pd



I. PENDAHULUAN
Manuia modern tampaknya tidak dapat melepaskan diri dari media komunikasi. Salahsatu media komunikasi yang banyak dihadapi adalah media tulus baik buku teks maupun media massa. Setiap hari kita disuguhi banyak media massa., apalagi dalam era keterbukaan dan reformasi seperti saat ini. A[abila kita tidak menaruh perhatian pada media massa tersebut, pastilah kita akan tertinggal. Sebaliknya, apabila kita ingin membaca semua informasi tulis tersebut, pastilah banyak waktu tersita hanya untuk membaca. Untuk itu ketrampilan membaca dengan cepat dan efektif perlu dimiliki oleh semua pihak baik pelajar, mahasiswa, maupun manusia lain yang ingin terlibat secara aktif dalam percaturan kehidupan.
Ada berbagai jenis membaca dan masing-masing jenis mempunyai spesifikasi dan fungsi khusus. Untuk itu, jenis-jenis tersebut perlu dipahami sehingga kita dapat semakin meningkatkan kemampuam membaca baik kemampuan membaca cepat maupum kemampuan membaca efektif.

II. MEMBACA CEPAT
Yang dimaksud membaca cepat adalah sistem membaca dengan memperhitungkan waktu baca dan tingkat pemahaman terhadap bahan yang dibacanya. Apabila waktu bacanya semakin sedikit dan tingkat pemahamannya semakin tinggi, maka dikatakan bahwa kecepatan baca orang tersebut semakin meningkat.
Pada umumnya orang yang belum pernah mendapat latihan membaca pasti memiliki kecepatan baca yang lebih rendah dari kemampuannya. Ada beberapa hal yang menyebabkan rendahnya kecepatan baca seseorang, antara lain
a. Kebiasaan lama yang telah mendarah daging seperti menggerakkan bibir untuk melafalkan, menggerakkan kepala ke kanan dan ke kiri, dan menggunakan jari atau benda untuk menunjuk kata-kata yang dibacanya.
b. Tidak agresif (tidak bersemangat) dalama usaha memahami arti bacaan.
c. Persepsinya kurang sehingga lambat dalam menginterpretasikan apa yang dibacanya.

Ada beberapa faktor yang menyebabkan kecepatan baca seseorang terhambat, antara lain
a. Vokalisasi, yaitu membaca sambil bersuara atau mengucapkan kata demi kata yang dibacanya.
b. Gerakan bibir pada waktu membaca baik bersuara mauapun tak bersuara.
c. Gerakan kepala mengikuti kata-kata yang dibacanya.
d. Menunjuk (dengan jari atau alat lain) kata-kata yang dibaca pada waktu membaca.
e. Regresi, yaitu gerakan mata melihat kembali beberapa kata yang telah dibacanya.
f. Subvokalisasi, yaitu melafalkan apa yang dibacanya dalam hati atau pikiran.

Untuk meningkatkan kecepatan baca kita, pertama-tama kita perlu mengukur kecepatan baca kita. Untuk itu perlu diadakan pengukuran kecepatan baca kita. Rumusnya :
(Jumlah kata yang dibaca dibagi jumlah detik untuk membaca dikalikan 60) dikalikan prosentase pemahaman.

Kecepatan baca bergantung pada kebutuhan dan bahan yang dihadapinya. Pada umumnya kecepatan baca dapat dirinci sebagai berikut :
a. Membaca secara skimmming dan scannning (lebih dari 1000 kpm)
Tipe membaca seperti ini biasanya digunakan untuk
- mengenal bahan-bahan yang akan dibaca
- mencari jawaban atas pertanyaan tertentu
- mendapat struktur dan organisasi bacaan serta menentukan gagasan umum dari bacaan
b. Membaca dengan kecepatan tingngi (500 – 800 kpm)
Tipe membaca seperti ini biasanya digunakan untuk
- membaca bahan-bahan yang mudah dan telah dikenali sebelumnya
- membaca novel ringan untuk mengikuti jalan ceritanya.
c. Membaca secara cepat (350 – 500 kpm)
Biasanya digunakan untuk
- membaca bacaan yang mudah dalam bentuk deskripsi dan bahan-bahan nonfiksi lain yang bersifat informatif.
- Membaca fiksi yang agak sulit untuk menikmati keindahan sastranya dan mengantisipasi akhir cerita.
d. Membaca dengan kecepatan rata-rata (250 – 350 kpm)
Biasanya digunakan untuk
- membaca fiksi yang komplek untuk analisis watak dan jalan ceritanya.
- Membaca nonfiksi yang agak sulit untuk mendapatkan detail, mencari hubungan, atau membuat evaluasi ide penulis.
e. Membaca lambat (100 – 125 kpm)
Biasanya digunakan untuk
- mempelajari bahan-bahan yang sulit dan untuk menguasai isinya.
- Menguasai bahan-bahan ilmiah yang sulit dan bersifat teknis
- Membuat analisis bahan-bahan bernilai sastra klasik
- Memecahkan persoalan yang ditunjuk dengan bacaan yang bersifat instruksional (petunjuk).

III. MEMBACA PEMAHAMAN
Membaca pemahaman berkaitan erat dengan usaha memahami hal-hal penting dari apa yang dibacanya. Yang dimaksud membaca pemahaman atau komprehensi adalah kemampuan membaca ntuk mengerti ide pokok, detail penting, dan seluruh pengertian. Pemahaman ini berkaitan erat dengan kemampuan mengingat bahan yang dibacanya. Usaha efektif untuk memahami dan mengingat lebih lama dapat dilakukan dengan
a. mengorganisasikan bahan yang dibacanya dalam kaitan yang mudah dipahami.
b. Mengaitkan fakta yang satu dengana fakta yang lain atau menghubungkannya dengan fakta dan konteks.
Tingkat pemahaman dalam membaca berkaitan pula dengan sistem membaca yang dipakainya. Umumnya orang cendenrung langsung membaca teks tanpa mempersiapkan prakondisi sehingga pembacaaan terssebut menjadi efektif.
Ada beberapa sistem membaca, antara lain
1. SQ3R : survey-question-read-recite-review
2. SQ4R : survey-question-read-recite-rite-review
3. POINT : purpose-overview-interpret-note-test
4. OK4R : overview-key ideas-read-summarize-test

Salahsatu sistem yang banyak dikenal dan dipakai orang adalah SQ3R. Sistem membaca SQ3R dikemukakan oleh Francis P. Robinson pada tahun 1941. SQ3R merupakan proses membaca yang terdiri dari lima langkah, yaitu
1. SURVEI
Survei atau prabaca adalah teknik mengenal bahan sebelum membacanya secara lengkap. Tujuan srvei adalah
a. mempercepat menangkap arti
b. mendapatkan abastrak
c. mengetahui ide-ide penting
d. melihan susunan (organisasi) bahan bacaan.
e. Mendapatkan minat perhatian yang seksama terhadap bacaan.
f. Memudahkan mengingat lebih banyak dan memahami lebih mudah.
Ada beberapa teknik dalam melakukan survei. Untuk tiap jenis bacaan, teknik surveinya berbeda.
a. Tekni survei buku
- telusuri daftar isinya
- baca kata pengantar
- lihat tabel, grafik
- lihan apendiks
- telusuri indeks
b. Teknik survei bab
- lihat paragraf pertama dan terakhir
- lihat ringkasan
- lihat subjudul
c. Teknik survei artikel
- baca judul
- baca semua subjudul
- amati tabel
- baca pengantar
- baca kalimat pertama subbab
- buatlah keputusan (dibaca atau tidak)
d. Teknik survei klipping
- perhatikan judul
- perhatikan penulisnya

2. QUESTION
Pada langkah ini kita mengajukan pertanyaan sebanyak-banyaknya tentang isi bacaan.
3. READ
Perlu disadari bahwa membaca merupakan langkah ketiga, bukan langkah pertama.
4. RECITE/RECALL
Pada tahap ini Anda dapat membuat catatan seperlunya
5. REVIEW
Pada tahal ini Anda mencoba mengingat kembali dengan membaca ulang bacaan yang Anda baca.

Menemukan Ide Pokok Wacana
Memahami suatu teks berarti memahami ide pokok yang hendak disampaikan oleh penulis teks tersebut. Untuk itu fokus pembacaan haruslah diletakkan pada usaha memahami ide pokok penulis. Ide pokok suatu buku dapat dikenali dalam
a. ikhtisar umum yang ada di awal buku
b. ikhtisar bab
c. ikhtisar bagian bab
d. ide pokok paragraf
Kadang-kadang orang terlalu membuang waktu untuk detail sebelum dia menemukan ide pokoknya. Detail adalah fakta atau informasi yang dikemas dalam paragraf untuk membuktikan, menjabarkan, dan memberikan contoh yang mendukung ide pokok. Salahsatu cara mengenali detail penting adalah dengan mencari petunjuk-petunjuk yang digunakan oleh penulis untuk membantu pembaca, antara lain dengan
a. ditulis cetak miring
b. digarisbawahi
c. dicetak tebal
d. dibubuhi angka-angka
e. ditulis dengan kode huruf (a,b,c,d)
Kata-kata kunci merupakan kata penuntun untuk membantu mengetahui jalan pikiran penulis. Kata kunci antara lain
a. ungkapan penekanan
b. kata yang mengubah arah
c. kata ilustrasi
d. kata tambahan
e. kata simpulan

IV. MEMBACA KRITIS
Membaca secara kritis adalah cara membaca dengan melihat motif penulis dan menilainya. Dengan demikian, pembca tidak sekedar membaca, melainkan juga berpikir tentang masalah yang dibahas. Hal yang harus diingat dalam membaca kritis adalah bahwa tidak semua yang ditulis itu benar.
Untuk itu kita harus mengikuti jalan pikiran penulis dengan cepat, akurat, dan kritis. Akurat artinya mampu membedakan hal yang relevan dan tidak relevan. Kritis artinya menerima pemikiran yang ditulis dengan dasar yang baik, logis, benar, dan realistis.
Langkah-langkah yang harus ditempuh dalam membaca kritis adalah
a. mengerti isi bacaan
b. menguji sumber penulisan
c. ada interaksi antara penulis dan pembaca.
d. Memutuskan :menerima atau menolak ide penulis
Untuk dapat melakukan evaluasi terhadap gagasan orang lain, kita perlu mengingat-ingat secara lebih seksama apa saja yang dikemukakan oleh penulis. Untuk itu, ingatan sangat penting. Ada beberapa langkah yang dapat ditempuh agar kita dapat mengingat lebih lama ddan lebih baik, yiatu
a. hadapi bahan dengan tujuan
b. survei apa saja yang perlu diingat
c. cai fakta dan dapatkan dalam hubungannya dengana konteks
d. kaitkan apa yang dibaca dengan yang telah diketahui.
e. Perhatikan apa yang penting bagi Anda.

Dalam usaha menanggapi pendapata orang lain, kita tidak boleh melupakan hal-hal yang penting yang diungkapkan oleh penulis. Agar tidak terlupakan perlu dibuat sejumlah catatan dari bacaan yang kita baca. Pokok-pokok yang perlu dicatat antara lain
a. bagian-bagian kunci :ide pokok, masalah, informasi penting
b. asumsi penulis tentang segi tertentu
c. detail atau fakta yang kita perlukan
d. pokok-pokok yang menarik
Ada tiga jenis catatan, yaitu
a. catatan berupa koleksi fakta dan detail penting
b. catatan berupa kutipan kalimat, paragraf, kata kunci
c. catatan berupa ringkasan

V. SKIMMING DAN SCANNING
Skimming adalah cara membaca yang hanya untuk mendapatkan ide pokok bacaan. Scanning adalah cara membaca dengan cara melompat langsung ke sasaran yang dicari.
Bagian-bagian yanag dapat dilompati antara lain
a. bagian yang telah diketahui dari buku lain
b. bagian yang berisi informasi yang tidak memenuhi tujuan membaca
c. bagian yang hanya merupakan contoh atau ilustrasi
d. bagian yang merupakan ringkasan bab sebelumnya.
Yang dimaksud skimming adalah mencari hal-hal penting dari bacaaan. Fungsi skimming adalah
a. untuk mengenali topik bacaan
b. untuk mengetahui pendapat/opini orang
c. untuk mendapatkan bagian penting yang kita butuhkan
d. untuk mengetahui organisasi penulisan, urutan ide pokok, dan cara berpikir penulis.
e. Untuk penyegaran apa yang pernah dibaca.
Scanning adalah teknik membaca untuk mendapatkan suatu informasi tanpa membaca yang lain. Scanning biasa digunakan untuk
a. mencari nomor telepon
b. mencari kata pada kamus
c. mencari eintri pada indeks
d. mencari angka statistik
e. melihat acara siaran televisi
f. melihat daftar perjalanan

I am at LotuSphere again in Orlando. It feels like about the 10th time. The keynote today (which I tweeted at "&ls09" and did a streaming commentary as it all was happening on stage. They put on quite a show starting with The Blue Man Group, followed by Dan Akroyd, and finishing up with The Blue Man Group again. In between there were a lot of Lotus announcements. The theme this year was “resonance” which was pretty cool, with lots of references to amplitude and wave forms. Unfortunately, my battery ran out and I had to stop Tweeting. The wifi network was slowed to a crawl a number of times anyway,maybe too many people online in one room, or uploading pictures? They also noted that attendance was up 2% this year (not a big increase, but better than the decrease that most events are seeing). Bob Picciano, the new Lotus GM noted that when resonance works it can shatter windows!

=> Read more!
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Lotusphere '09
Measuring the Value of Collaboration
This is Posted by: David Coleman
01-14 2009 02:01
Categories: general

Over the course of my career this question keeps popping up. Because collaboration is a behavior, and even using new Web 2.0 technologies the benefits are often indirect and intangible, so it is a hard question to answer. Certainly the simple ROI tools that many of the web conferencing companies tout, that show how much you are saving on a meeting because you did not fly there and are using their tool, are good, but not sufficient. That ROI argument will hold for about 6 month, in the mean time you need to come up with more reasons that prove the current or future collaborative technologies are not only the right thing to do, but will save money or make it easier to make money. This is especially true in today’s recessionary environment.

=> Read more!
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Measuring the Value of Collaboration
Help with 42 Rules Book
This is Posted by: David Coleman
01-07 2009 01:01
Categories: general

I am currently working on a new book called "42 Rules for Successfull Collaboration." I have written many of the rules but I think the collective consciousness around collaboration is of value and I also know a lot of people who are experts on Collaboration and I hope they will also choose to contribute to this book project.

So what is a rule? It is limited to 650 words. 42 Rules books are short, sweet and to the point. They use examples to reinforce the rules and bring in as many outside anecdotes, statistics, and stories as possible. Each rule is a complete idea.

Rule titles should be stated in the positive and be an action. Each rule should contain a story, anecdote, statistic or similar proof-point; these can include quotes from other experts,colleagues, etc. statement; try not to use “Don’t” or to ask questions in the rule titles. Each rule needs a pull-quote, which is used in the left-hand margin; this quote should come directly from the rule copy (and does not need to be a 3rd party quote as referenced above.) Keep track of your references and cite them as endnotes.

An example rule that I wrote is:

Rule 2 – Trust is not enough!
For many years I thought trust was critical for collaboration or for distributed teams to be effective, but after attending the NewWoW symposium in the summer of 2008 which looked at the effects of culture, I began to understand that trust was just not enough. Also, I can easily think of situations where people on a team or committee did not trust each other yet worked together for a common goal. Just look at any standards committee for a good example of this.

From Wikipdia: Trust is a relationship of reliance.

It does not need to involve belief in the good character, vices, or morals of the other party. And it does not need to include an action that you and the other party are mutually engaged in. In fact, trust is a prediction of reliance on an action, based on what a party knows about the other party.

What I came to realize is that for collaboration to be successful, trust does help, but understanding the “local context” of your team members was even more critical. What I mean by “local context” is knowing about the other team members, the organizations they are in, the country culture and the individual characteristics. Without an understanding of this local context poor communication, and missed meanings run rampant on distributed teams; especially teams with members from “high context” cultures (like Japan)1 when they are intermixed with team members from “low context” cultures (U.S.).

A good example of this occurred when I did some classes on collaboration in Japan a few years ago. The classes went well and when I got back to the U.S., I e-mailed my main contact in Japan to discuss some unresolved issues from the training. I also wanted to introduce them to others in the U.S. who I thought could benefit their business. I made an online (e-mail) introduction and assumed everything was proceeding.

But that was not the case. My contact in Japan was not even replying to my e-mails. Finally in frustration I called my contact in Japan and asked what was going on. Now, I come from NY and have been told I can be rather straight forward, part of being part of a low-context culture. However, my contact in Japan was from a high context culture and one that also avoids conflict. He had enough trust in me to tell me that the introduction was being ignored because it had gone to the wrong people, and they lost “face” by it. Once I sent the e-mail to my contact’s boss, and asked permission for the introduction, things went a lot better. The boss “saved face” my contact was allowed to e-mail me again, and the introduction was made.

How many times has something like this tripped you up when working on a geographically distributed and cross cultural team? Although I almost always recommend to my clients that the first team or project meeting should be in person (then it is much easier to do the electronic collaboration that follows) because it helps all the team members understand the local context for each other. This in-person visit, although expensive, should have some social experiences thrown in, as they help to speed up understanding (and possibly trust) of the other team members.

I found that taking the time in the beginning to learn about and know each of the other team members paid off in spades later on. Also the agreement on clear team processes and interactions at the beginning of a project also really paid off. Yes, both of these help to develop trust, but more than that, they give you an understanding of those you are working with, which is even more critical when you work at a distance.

Pull Quote: “What I came to realize is that for collaboration to be successful, trust does help, but understanding the “local context” of your team members was even more critical.”

I am finishing up the book in the month of January, so get me your rules as soon as possible at davidc@collaborate.com
2 comments • Permalink

Help with 42 Rules Book
The Evolution of Collaboration Technologies
This is Posted by: David Coleman
12-12 2008 01:12
Categories: general

The holidays are upon us, and I have been reflecting on this past year and trying to discern any trends or patters around collaboration technologies over the course of the last 12 months. If Web 2.0 is the “social web” and 3.0 is the “Semantic Web” then where are we now? The social web has been happening for a few years now (2004-2005), what improvements have I seen, and where do I think collaboration is going.
Trendsordinative
One entry found.


Main Entry:
2co•or•di•nate
Pronunciation:
\kō-ˈȯr-də-ˌnāt\
Function:
verb
Inflected Form(s):
co•or•di•nat•ed; co•or•di•nat•ing
Date:
1665
transitive verb
1 : to put in the same order or rank
2 : to bring into a common action, movement, or condition : harmonize
3 : to attach so as to form a coordination complex
intransitive verb
1 : to be or become coordinate especially so as to act together in a smooth concerted way
2 : to combine by means of a coordinate bond
— co•or•di•na•tive \kō-ˈȯrd-nə-tiv; -ˈȯr-də-nə-tiv, -də-ˌnā-\ adjective
— co•or•di•na•tor \-ˈȯr-də-ˌnā-tər\ noun
Learn more about "coordinate" and related topics at Britannica.com
See a map of "coordinate" in the Visual Thesaurus
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