Senin, 28 Desember 2009

pragraf

The advantages of learning English for human
Posted on Januari 7, 2009 by ujie.
Categories: Uncategorized.

English is a magnificent language to be learnt by human nowadays. In addition English is language that most spoken by many people around the world it means that English is important language for human nowadays in brief. We can say that English has vital roles in human’s life nowadays is a fact. On the contrary human can be called as “miss understanding people” they do not know anything about English. Indeed learning English important be done by human at the present. Accordingly learning English can give many advantages for human. First of all, learning English can add knowledge of human in English such as; writing, reading, speaking, listening. For example, in writing skill human can be good author in English writing. Human can write some English writing such as: novels book. In addition in reading skill human can be good reader in English writing like English text book, novel, English newspaper etc. another example of advantages of learning English in speaking skill is human can be easier to communicate to the foreigner. The last advantages are human can be good listener everything in English. Secondly by learning English human can be do everything in some public life section such as; Economic, social, culture, and politic. learning human can be easier to apply for the job, to the factory that have became English as main requirements of the employee that they have to master English either actively or passively. Thirdly by learning English human can expand their knowledge about English include writing, speaking, reading, and listening Fourthly human can These just some advantages of learning English for human .
Furthermore learning English gives wonderful advantages for human. First of all by learning English, human can know everything about English, include writing, listening, reading speaking etc. these are know and well as four major of English skill. As an illustration; in writing skill human can write everything in English well like English text book, novel, magazine, book, advertisement, announcement, etc. it is gives good effects for human. As a result, human can be good author for next time and their work can be published. in secondly other advantages in speaking skill are will be easier to communicate with the foreigner, it means that they will be have a good English skill to speak up to others. Moreover human can be fluently confident to pronounce speak in and some English vocabulary. Thirdly, the advantages of learning English in reading skill are human be fluently to read everything in English such as; English text book, magazine, bulletin etc. in edition they can be easier to understand the next that are written in English thus human will be easy to do some English text such as TOEFL and LELT. Fourthly listening skill in the advantages are human can be good listener everything in English trough some media electronic and printed, such as television, radio, etc
Moreover learning English can give advantages human can be easy to do everything in some public life section, such as; social, culture, economic and politic. Human can be a best master of English , it means that they can join all the public life section using English as illustration; social, human can be communicate to others by using English, such as; books, magazine, news paper. Another in economic section some people use English to communicate their daily activity. It means that English make they be easy to communicate, such as; in money charge, trading. On the other hand is culture, human can learn a culture of any region in Indonesia using English. Human also can learn how to join a politic field in a country by using English.
Learning English can be a good activity to add human’s knowledge, so that it very important to learn English. Learning English gives many advantages for human in their life, include, writing, speaking, listening and reading etc. in addition, people want to improve and increase their ability in English should be active in order to get many wonderful advantages of learning it. Learning English gives many advantages for human in some public sections of life such as: social, economic, culture, and politic etc. For all these reasons human can get many wonderful advantages of learning English for their life.

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WATER AND LIFE
Posted on Desember 12, 2008 by ujie.
Categories: Uncategorized.

Water is the source of the life. It means that life can not go well without it. Moreover, for all the creatures include us, human being, animals and plants are depend on the existence of water. Especially we are as human being, can imagine the condition without it will be bad and dangerous for themselves. Consequently they can die slowly. Therefore, all the creatures need water in their life. For example, human need enough water for their body. According to medical science human should supply enough drinking water at least 8 glasses in a day. The purpose of supplying enough water is to prevent the condition lack of water in human water that is known well as “dehydration”. This condition is very dangerous for human body; they will be unenergetic, pale face, etc. Thereby, human must fulfill the supply of water well to get the healthy and energetic body. However, not only human who need water, but also animals and plants. They need water to grow up well. Thus, all creatures need water in their life.

However, everything in this world has positive and negative effects includes water. It will give the positive effects for the creatures that are used well. For example, human they use water to fulfill the main necessity like drinking, eating, so on. In addition human also use water to supply enough water for their body so that they will not feel dehydration, it is the condition that lack of water. On the other hand, animals need water to grow up well. Plants also need water, like in photosynthesis process. In contrast, water also has negative effects, such as: flood and slide land will give disadvantages for all creatures; even it can destroy the environment. As a result, water can not be desperate from the life. Read More......

reached methood

PENGERTIAN DAN MACAM VARIABEL

A. Pengertian
Di dalam melaksanakan penelitian, variabel tidak kalah penting bagi peneliti untuk dipahami dengan baik. Menurut Sutrisno hadi yang di Sunting oleh Suharsimi dalam bukunya “Prosedur Penelitian {2006}” variabel adalah obyek penelitian yang bervariasi, misalnya jenis kelamin, karena jenis kelamin mempunyai variasi : laki-laki, perempuan; berat badan karena ada 40 kg, dan sebagainya
Sedangkan menurut Mohammad Nazir Ph.D di dalam bukunya menyatakan bahwa variabel adalah konsep yang mempunyai bermacam-macam nilai. Badan, misalnya, adalah konsep dan bukan variabel, karena badan tersebut tidak mempunyai keragaman nilai, sebaliknya berat badan adalah variabel karena badan tersebut mempunyai keragaman nilai, bisa 45 kg atau 100kg .
Sedangkan menurut prof.dr.sugioyono yang terdapat dalam bukunya yang berjudul statistika untuk penelitian mendefinisikan variabel secara teoritis asalah sebuah atribut seseorang atau obyek yang mempunyai “variasi” antara satu oarangh dengan orang yang yang lain atau satu obyek dengan obyek yang lain, tapi menurut Hatch dan farhady, 198, mendifinisikan sebuah variabel merupakan sebuah atribut sari sebuah keilmuan atau kegiatan tertentu, tinggi berat badan, sikap motivasi, kedisiplinan, kerja, merupakan sebuah atribut daei setiap orang, sedangkan, berat, ukuran, warna merupakan atribut-atrbut dari obyek atau bahan baku, pabrik teknologi imi merupakan contoh dari variabel dalam kegitan atau ilmu bisnis, tapi kalau menurut 0Karlingger menyatakan vaeiabel adalah sebuah sifat yang harus bdi pelajari
Tapi menurt kidder (1981)mendefisikan variabel adalah sebuah kualitas (qualities) da mana peneliti meneliti dan menarik kesimpulan darinya.

B. Macam-Macam Variabel
Variabel dapat di bedakan atas kuantitatif dan kualitatif
Variabel kuantitatif dapat di bedakan atas dua kelompok , yaitu variabel discrit dan variabel continuum ( discrete and continuous )
a) Variabel dikrit : disebut juga variabel nominal atau variabel kategori karena hanya dapat di bedakan atas dua kutub yang berlawanan yakni “ya” dan “ tidak” misalnya hadir - tidak hadir , “atas- bawah” . angaka-angka yang di gunakan dalam variabel diskrit untuk menghitung angak- angka banyaknya pria yang hadir dan yang tidak hadir
b) Variabel continuum, dan variabel ini terbagi menjadi tiga variabel kecil
a. Variabel ordinal, yaitu variabel yang menunjukkan tingkatan- tingkatan, misalnya panjang dan kurang panjang, pendek. Untuk kata lain variabel “kurang panjang” karena yang satu lebih panjang dari pada yang lain.
b. variabel interval: yaitu variabel yang mempunyai jarak jika di banding variabel yang lain. Sedang diri sendiri dapat di ketahui dengan pasti. misalnya: suhu udara di luar 310 C. suhu tubuh kita 370 C. Maka selisih 60 C.
c. variabel ratio: yaitu variabel perbandingan. Variabel ini hubungan dalam sesamanya “sekian kali”. Contoh: berat pak rahmat 70 kg, sedang B anaknya 35 maka pak Rahmat dua kali berat anaknya. Read More......

technik pengajaran

TEKNIK PENGAJARAN MEMBACA CEPAT DAN KRITIS DENGAN METODE SQ3R
Friday, June 5th, 2009
Membaca adalah kegiatan atau suatu aktivitas yang rumit atau kompleks, karena bergantung pada keterampilan berbahasa pelajar, dan pada tingkat penalarannya (Sri Utari Subyakto Nababan, 1993: 164).
Di sisi lain, Suyatmi berpendapat bahwa membaca merupakan sekedar kegiatan yang menyuarakan lambang-lambang tertulis saja tanpa mempersoalkan apakah kalimat atau kata-kata yang dilisankan itu dipahami atau tidak (2000: 4).
Sejalan dengan dua pengertian di atas Yasir Burhan dalam Suyatmi membaca adalah arti sesungguhnya ialah perbuatan yang dilaksanakan berdasarkan kerjasama atas beberapa keterampilan, yaitu mengamati, memahami, dan memikirkan (Suyatmi, 2000: 5).
Berpijak dari pengertian di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa membaca merupakan aktivitas untuk memahami ide atau gagasan yang tersurat maupun tersirat di dalam suatu bacaan yang melibatkan kerjasama beberapa komponen keterampilan berbahasa.
Membaca cepat adalah keterampilan membaca sekilas dengan mengkondisikan otak bekerja lebih cepat sehingga konsentrasi akan lebih membaik secara otomatis (Hernowo (Ed.), 2003). Dalam hal ini kita dituntut untuk memusatkan konsentrasi kita dalam proses membaca guna mengefisiensikan waktu yang kita miliki dan juga energi yang kita keluarkan juga akan relatif lebih banyak. Sedangkan pernyataan yang kedua menyebutkan bahwa membaca cepat adalah perpaduan kemampuan motorik (gerakan mata) atau kemampuan visual dengan kemampuan kognitif seseorang dalam membaca. Membaca cepat merupakan perpaduan antara kecepatan membaca dengan pemahaman isi bacaan.
Kecepatan membaca seseorang harus seiring dengan kecepatan memahami bahan bacaan yang telah dibaca (Imron Rosidi, 2007). Dan pernyataan terakhir menyinggung keterampilan membaca cepat yang menyebutkan bahwa kemampuan membaca cepat merupakan keterampilan memilih isi bacaan yang harus dibaca sesuai dengan tujuan, yang ada relevansinya dengan pembaca tanpa membuang-buang waktu untuk menekuni bagian-bagian lain yang tidak diperlukan (Soedarso, 2001). Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa dalam membaca cepat diperlukan konsentrasi yang lebih ketika membaca dam juga diperlukan perpaduan kemampuan motorik dengan kemampuan kognitif serta diperlukan waktu yang relatif singkat guna memperoleh informasi yang ada dalam bacaan baik yang tersirat maupun tersurat.
Hal – hal terssebut di atas merupakan sejumlah pengertian yang pada akhirnya merujuk kepada pengertian membaca cepat. Kemampuan membaca cepat seseorang pada dasarnya memiliki hubungan terhadap kemampuan mengkritisi sebuah tulisan. Namun, perlu kita ketahui bahwa kemampuan mengkritisi sebuah tulisan tidak lepas dari latar belakang pendidikan maupun pengalaman seseorang dan ini berarti hal terkait membaca cepat atau kritis berkaitan dengan pendidikan, khususnya pendidikan bahasa. dalam pengajarannya, selain memelukan tulisan sebagai media dan bahan ajar tentunya juga memerlukan teknik atau metode yang tepat daalam pelaksanaannya.
Sistem membaca SQ3R dikemukakan oleh Francis P. Robinson pada tahun 1941. SQ3R merupakan proses membaca yang terdiri dari lima langkah, yaitu
1. SURVEI
Survei atau prabaca adalah teknik mengenal bahan sebelum membacanya secara lengkap. Tujuan srvei adalah
a. mempercepat menangkap arti
b. mendapatkan abastrak
c. mengetahui ide-ide penting
d. melihan susunan (organisasi) bahan bacaan.
e. Mendapatkan minat perhatian yang seksama terhadap bacaan.
f. Memudahkan mengingat lebih banyak dan memahami lebih mudah.
2. QUESTION
Pada langkah ini kita mengajukan pertanyaan sebanyak-banyaknya tentang isi bacaan.
3. READ
Perlu disadari bahwa membaca merupakan langkah ketiga, bukan langkah pertama.
4. RECITE/RECALL
Pada tahap ini Anda dapat membuat catatan seperlunya
5. REVIEW
Pada tahal ini Anda mencoba mengingat kembali dengan membaca ulang bacaan yang Anda baca.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Faiz Manshur. Efektifitas Menulis Resensi Buku. 2006. Diakses dari http://faizmanshur.wordpress.com/2006/06/04/efektif-menulis-resensi-buku/ 02-03-2009 jam 09.45 WIB.
Hernowo (Ed). 2003. Quantum Reading. Bandung: MLC
Imron Rosidi. 2007. Berlatih Membaca Cepat. Makalah disajikan dalam Pelatihan Membaca Cepat di Pondok Sidogiri, Pasuruan. 16 Maret 2007
Soedarso. 2001. Speed Reading; Sistem Membaca Cepat dan Efektif. Jakarta: PT Gramedia.
Sri Utari Subyakto Nababan. 1993. Metodologi Pengajaran Bahasa. Jakarta: Gramedia.
Suyatmi. 2000. Membaca I. Surakarta: UNS Press.
Suyitno dan Purwadi. 2000. Dasar-Dasar Komposisi. Surakarta: UNS Press.
Tags: membaca, membaca cepay, membaca kritis, pengajaran, pengajaran membaca, SQ3R
This entry was posted on Friday, June 5th, 2009 at 6:48 pm and is filed under bahasa. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

An Approach to the Lingua
Franca of the Mediterranean
Eva Martínez Díaz. Department of Hispanic Philology, Universitat de Barcelona
There are certain languages that have been
created as a result of the diffculty of commu-
nication between people who speak distinct
languages but have common interests. Faced
with this linguistic situation, the speakers are
capable of creating a specifc language for these
contexts in which there is a community of in-
terests; this common communication system is
known as the lingua franca. The aim of these
pages is to analyse the lingua franca created
on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea from
the 15th century until the late 19th century.
There is no intention to describe its linguistic
system but to defne what exactly must be un-
derstood by the lingua franca of the Mediter-
ranean. For this it will be necessary to delimit
this concept with others closely related and to
present, in general terms, the social, political
and military factors that helped the birth of
a common communication system throughout
the Mediterranean basin.
Towards the end of 1951, the lingua franca
was defned as what was normally used by
speakers of different mother tongues in order
to be able to establish communication between
them (UNESCO, 1972: 689). When using a lin-
gua franca, the speakers of different linguistic
systems pursue one objective or a variety of
ends: trade, political, military, cultural, admin-
istrative or religious relations. These ends are
those that justify some of the synonymous, or
almost synonymous, terms of the lingua franca
that form part of the bibliography of the sub-
ject: trade language, contact language or in-
ternational language. All these terms have the
common denominator of forming a language
created by the need to bring different linguistic
communities together.
However, to better understand what a lingua
franca is we must fnish defning it in relation to
other terms with which it tends to be confused:
koine, pidgin and jargon. A koine and a lingua
franca are linguistic systems shared by speak-
ers of different vernacular languages. However,
koine can be identifed with one of these ver-
nacular languages or with any of the varieties
of the same language. Moreover, pidgin is an
interlinguistic variety – a mixed language
– which is not acquired as the mother tongue
by any social group (Silva-Corvalán, 1989: 190).
When pidgin is established linguistically and
socially – the process of “pidginisation” –, ex-
panding its vocabulary and making its system
more complex, it can give way to what is known
as a Creole language, which is acquired as the
mother tongue and usually establishes itself as
the national language. According to Samarin
(1972), a lingua franca is a pidgin language,
a hybrid or mixed language. In addition, jar-
gon, just like koine and pidgin, is a variety of
common language which is only used by deter-
mined groups or social communities.
Specifcally, the lingua franca which is the
object of this study was born at the end of the
Middle Ages with the political and, above all,
economic expansion of the main maritime cit-
ies of the Mediterranean, which would leave
so many marks throughout their area of infu-
ence. A language of international communica-
tion was constructed, which developed a more
Quaderns9.indd 27/03/2008, 16:55 223224 An Approach to the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean Quaderns de la Medi terrània 225
or less uniform lexicon. It seems that the base
of this lingua was confgured fundamentally
by the presence of the Romance languages
but also by Arabic, vulgar Greek and Turkish,
all languages that contributed not only to the
lexicon or the morphosyntax but also to the
phonetics.
From the 10th century, indigenous inhabit-
ants from different points of the Christian West
established political and trade relations on the
coasts of the eastern Mediterranean. Because
of this colonising expansion, a series of Latin
states was constituted governed by western no-
bles and sovereigns. With this situation it was
to be expected that the mark left by westerners
would not only be military and political, but
also linguistic and cultural. Soldiers, sailors
and merchants constituted quite compact
ethnic groups that even settled their own
neighbourhoods. The infux of emigrants to
these eastern lands continued for centuries and
each group was able to maintain its Romance
language of origin. This was the perfect space
for the coexistence of several Romance and
non-Romance languages; a space of colingual-
ism was produced. Both the presence of mixed
marriages and the need for communication be-
tween speakers of distinct vernacular languages
brought about the existence of multilingual
speakers, whether through the learning of the
mother tongues by the colonising population or
by the learning of the language of the colonis-
ers by the native population. Simultaneously,
the need for communication between the speak-
ers of different languages also gave rise to the
presence of interpreters.
In this social and geographical framework
of the 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th centuries a
paralanguage was developed, a language of
linguistic exchange created from the strong
Venetian presence in navigation and trade of
the East. This would be a vehicular language
created by non-natives, derived from the Ro-
mance language adapting it to the needs of
communication (Metzeltin: 11). Simultane-
ously, a paralanguage of similar features was
developed in other territories of the Mediterra-
nean, varying its characterisation according to
the Romance languages that came together in
each place. This paralanguage, also known by
the name of lingua franca, was born out of the
mix between one or several Romance languages
and any eastern or Levantine language. It was
used for some communicative situations and
was well understood and spoken by people of a
certain cultural level and certain social ambits:
commercial, administrative or maritime.
On the threshold of the 16th century,
following political and social events,
the lingua franca of the Mediterranean
gradually acquired a Spanish linguistic
base
This lingua franca from the 15th century
until the 19th century was the product of a
pidgin language, the result of which was that
none of the groups that used it felt the need
to learn the other’s language and, therefore,
resorted to less complicated mechanisms; in
other words, they created a new language
from a mixture whose lexical and morphologi-
cal base – the base of pidgin – is the Romance
component, exactly the language of the most
powerful group in these relations and which
varies according to historical period. On the
threshold of the 16th century, following politi-
cal and social events, the lingua franca of the
Mediterranean gradually acquired a Spanish
linguistic base. Thus, it is necessary to recall the
historical events that brought about the contact
between Spanish and the other languages of
the Mediterranean. Algeria belonged to the
Almoravids and the Almohads from the 11th
century until the 13th century and, after be-
ing divided into independent tribal zones, its
coastal cities carried out piracy. To counter this
advance, the Spanish occupied Oran and other
Quaderns9.indd 27/03/2008, 16:55 224224 An Approach to the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean Quaderns de la Medi terrània 225
cities in 1509. Faced with the affront of the at-
tempts by the Spanish to conquer Algiers, the
Algerians were protected and helped by the
Greek-Turkish corsairs; however, they fnally
occupied the city, and the whole country was
subjected to Ottoman authority.
The presence of the Spanish in the North
African baths of the kingdoms of Algiers,
Tunis and Salé was the perfect situation
for the formation and later development
of the lingua franca
On the linguistic situation of the city in the
second half of the 16th century, Fray Diego de
Haedo, in his Topographia e historia general de
Argel (1612), distinguishes fve linguistic com-
munities, formed by Turks, apostate Christians,
captive Christians, Jews and Moors. Among the
captive Christians were the Spanish, Portu-
guese, French and Italians. Each one of these
communities conserved the mother tongue used
so that the members of the same community
could communicate with each other. However,
it should not surprise us that they were able to
understand and speak the language of their
masters – after fve or ten years or more of
captivity. It was not only among the cap-
tured Christians that the learning of second
languages or the start of the creation of the
lingua franca took place. The presence of the
Spanish in the North African baths of the
kingdoms of Algiers, Tunis and Salé was also
the perfect situation for the formation and
later development of this lingua franca. For
example, in the baths of Fez, Tétouan, Vélez
de la Gomera, Algiers and Constantinople
speakers of many languages from numerous
and varied geographical areas met.
However, of the colingualism which
emerged between the fve communities in the
city of Algiers mentioned by Fray Diego, only
three languages stand out, those that became
common languages which allowed members
of distinct communities to communicate. First
is Turkish, spoken by the Turks, the apostate
Christians who had relations with them, the
Moors and by captive Christians. Second, and
together with this language, is the morisco lan-
guage, which was not only used by the moriscos
(Muslim converts to Christianity), but also by
the Turks and Christians who had contact with
them. And, lastly, comes the common language
of everyday relations between slaves and mas-
ters, captives and redeemers, merchants and
buyers, Muslims and Christians; this is the lin-
gua franca, which responds to the language and
Christian way of speaking. With this language,
communication with the Christians was easier,
given that it was a mixture of several Christian
languages, whose terms were mostly Italian
and Spanish, in addition to some Portuguese.
It should be added that the Lusitanian infu-
ence was because of the colonial policy that the
monarchy of Portugal applied to Morocco; for
this reason, the presence of a great number of
Portuguese in Tétouan and Fez persisted until
the defeat of King Sebastian in Alcazarquivir,
in a crusade against Morocco.
The use of this lingua franca was general due
to the constant presence of Christians. In this
way, even native children and women of North
Africa used it or, at least, could understand it
when spoken by Christians. Moreover, it should
be noted that learning could also be developed
in distant lands, as in the case of the Turks who
were captive in Spain, Italy or France, as well
as a large number of apostates and Jews who
were in Christian territory and could speak three
languages: Spanish, Italian and French. Captives
and travellers throughout the 17th and 18th
centuries testify that the designation of lingua
franca, of eastern origin, could have been taken
to Algiers by the Greek-Turkish corsairs when
they went to the aid of the Algerians and ended
up holding the hegemonic power.
Following the creolist Robert A. Hall (1966),
the alleged lingua franca of the 19th century
Quaderns9.indd 27/03/2008, 16:56 225226 An Approach to the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean Quaderns de la Medi terrània 227
was a French pidgin. When France embarked
on the conquest and consequent colonisation of
Algeria in 1830, it was in the old pirate states of
Tripoli, Tunisia and Algeria where the lingua
franca widely used throughout the 19th century
was developed. In this way, the linguistic conse-
quence was quite clear: the lingua franca, until
that time based on Italian and Spanish, changed
its base, became Frenchifed, acquiring the de-
nomination of sabir. As a counterpoint to its
birth and evolution, we see that the decline of
this last Mediterranean lingua franca and its later
disappearance must be situated in the late 19th
century and early 20th. It is notable, for example,
that in Algeria the dissemination of French, ir-
regularly learned by the North Africans through
the French themselves, was a decisive factor for
the disappearance of the lingua franca spoken in
Algiers. The process was not so much a substitu-
tion of the lingua franca by an interlanguage,
French or Arabic, but that the Algerians stopped
learning the lingua franca because of the grow-
ing Frenchifying of the Arab community.
In short, the lingua franca of the Mediter-
ranean was born out of the linguistic levelling
of the different languages that coexisted in
the Mediterranean basin. This lingua franca
was the result of a pidgin whose formation,
simplifcation and evolution was due to the
situation of constant interference to which it
was subjected throughout its ongoing creation,
as well as to its limited dominions and its in-
terlinguistic contacts. In this way, we discover
a Mediterranean linked not only by the same
waters, but also by a single language: further
proof of the different twinning established in
the course of the life of Mare Nostrum.
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las obras de Miguel de Cervantes”, Trivium.
Anuario de Estudios Humanísticos, no. 7, 1995,
pp. 109-127.
METZELTIN, M., Las lenguas francas del Mediterráneo,
Vienna (unpublished).
SAMARIN, W.J., “Lingua Francas of the World”, in
J.A. Fishman (ed.), Readings in the Sociology of
Language, The Hague, Mouton Publishers, 1972,
pp. 660-672.
SCHUCHARDT, H., “Die Lingua Franca”, Zeitschrift für
romanische Philologie, no. 33, 1909, pp. 441-461.
SILVA-CORVALÁN, C., Sociolingüística. Teoría y análisis,
Madrid, Alhambra Universidad, 1989.
SOLA, E., Un Mediterráneo de piratas: corsarios, ren-
egados y cautivos, Madrid, Tecnos, 1988.
UNESCO, “The Use of Vernacular Languages in
Education”, in J.A. Fishman (ed.), Readings in
the Sociology of Language, The Hague, Mouton
Publishers, 1972, pp. 688-697.
Quaderns9.indd 27/03/2008, 16:56 226226 An Approach to the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean Quaderns de la Medi terrània 227
WANSBROUGH, J.E., Lingua Franca in the Mediter-
ranean, Surrey, Curzon Press, 1996.
WARTBURG, W. von, “Lingua Franca”, FEW, XV, 1969,
pp. 60-64.
WHINNOM, K., “Lingua Franca: Historical Problems”, in
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WHINNOM, K., “Linguistic Hybridization and the ‘Spe-
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Quaderns9.indd 27/03/2008, 16:56 227Quaderns9.indd 27/03/2008, 16:56 228 Read More......

proposal

TEACHING READING USE SQ3R
(SURVEY QUESTION READ, RECITE, REVIEW) TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS READING COMPREHENSION IN SMP SUNAN PAJETEN KWANYAR BANGKALAN MADURA


CHAPTER I

A. Background
English is very important to learn because it is an international language in Indonesia, English is second foreign language taught when students enter elementary school. There are many reasons why students in Indonesia need to study English. Firstly, they have to communicate, secondly, they have to find a job, and thirdly, they have to be able to absorb science and technology from other countries in the world.
Therefore, Indonesian students feel that it is a must for them to know English. Almost all students learn English to get more knowledge and information written in English. In higher education for college students, learning English is not only meant to know the language it self but also to catch and comprehend information so that the students may broaden their knowledge on the realm of the study.
English is regarded as compulsory subject that is taught at many levels of education in Indonesia. The subjective of English learning in SMP/ MTs is to make the students able to communicate in English either actively or passively. This means that they should master the four language skills; listening, speaking, they might concentrate on the correctness of pronunciation or spelling rather than finding the information on the reading text. For this reason, I have determined to conduct a research using SQ3R that might be more effective than non SQ3R reading techniques.

B. Problem of The Research
Base on the background above, the problem of the research are formulated as follows:
“Is there any significant effect of Teaching reading use SQ3R
(Survey, question read, recite, review) technique to improve
The students reading comprehension in SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangkalan Madura.

C. Purpose of The Research
The objective of the research is analyzing In a Teaching reading use SQ3R
(Survey, question read, recite, review) technique to improve
The students reading comprehension in SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangkalan Madura.
Indition, the objective of English learning as required by SMP/MTs English curriculum (2006: 23) , is the students became a smart students
Of the four language skills, reading has the most important roles in English classes at SMP because the units of English text books mostly present reading passages. Meanwhile, Eskey (in carrel at, al, 1988: 1) states that in advanced level of second language, the ability to read the written language at a reasonable rate and with good comprehension has long been recognized to be as important as oral skill, even more important. This fact leads to on clear conclusion: the more efficiently you read better chances of becoming a successful student. The main problem is teaching English is how to help students comprehend their reading text. They might not comprehend the text although they have read them.
So, the purpose of this research is to find out the significant Teaching reading use SQ3R (Survey, question read, recite, review) technique to improve the students reading comprehension in SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangkalan Madura.

D. Significance of The Research
1. For the English teacher
This research is expected to:
Give feedback to the teacher that SQ3R can be used to help their students to improve their reading skills.
2. For the students
This research is expected to:
Enable the students to learning English use SQ3R techniques.
3. For the next researcher
This research is expected to:
Give contribution for the next researchers who conduct similar research especially about techniques of reading. For beginner to focus on questions and for advanced researcher to focus on literal and evaluative comprehension.
4. For the writer
This research is expected to:
To deed knowledge about same problems in teaching reading comprehension use SQ3R, he will be optimistic to find out the best solution for Nether problems in teaching.
5. For the theory
This research is expected to:
To give contribution in teaching method especially in teaching reading use SQ3R (Survey, question read, recite, review) technique to improve the students reading comprehension in SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangkalan Madura.

E. Limitation of The Research
This research is intended to identify and describe the effect of. The Teaching reading use SQ3R (Survey, question read, recite, review) technique to improve the students reading comprehension in SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangkalan Madura.
Us, the area of research is limited to the area of teaching reading by using SQ3R.

CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literature
F. Operational Definition
So that not happen different meaning in problem of research, so need given definition operational as follows:
1. TEACHING READING
Traditionally, the purpose of learning to read in a language has been to have access to the literature written in that language. In language instruction, reading materials have traditionally been chosen from literary texts that represent "higher" forms of culture.
This approach assumes that students learn to read a language by studying its vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure, not by actually reading it. In this approach, lower level learners read only sentences and paragraphs generated by textbook writers and instructors. The reading of authentic materials is limited to the works of great authors and reserved for upper level students who have developed the language skills needed to read them.
The communicative approach to language teaching has given instructors a different understanding of the role of reading in the language classroom and the types of texts that can be used in instruction. When the goal of instruction is communicative competence, everyday materials such as train schedules, newspaper articles, and travel and tourism Web sites become appropriate classroom materials, because reading them is one way communicative competence is developed. Instruction in reading and reading practice thus become essential parts of language teaching at every level.
2. SQ3R
SQ3R is probably less useful with textbooks that focus on helping you solve problems. For instance, it may not be useful to employ SQ3R with math textbooks. In this case, the main emphasis of reading the chapter is on helping you solve problems. Focusing your energy on solving mathematical problems using the information in the chapter is probably a better use of your time. Two other types of textbooks for which SQ3R may be less useful is beginning foreign language texts or texts for English class. The focus of beginning foreign language texts is often vocabulary, verb tense and sentence construction. Books for English class may be novels and the purpose of reading may be focused more on the "big picture" than on the content of a particular section or chapter.

3. Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension in this research refers to the students understanding in a reading a text. The indicators of reading comprehension are literal comprehension (understanding explicitly the stated information) and inferential comprehension (understanding implicitly the unstated information), their achievement can be seen on their test scores.

CHAPTER III

G. Research Methodology
1. Research Design
This research was experimental design, for this research methodology is much more quantitative than qualitative, and it emphasize on numbers, measurements, deductive logical, control, and experiments (Mc. Millan, 1992:9). The research respondents are divided into two groups, the experimental and control group. A special treatment is given to the experimental group for a certain time but not for the control group. The design of this group is describe as follows:
Class Treatment Post test
Experimental group X T
Control Group - T
Notes X: Treatment
T: Post test
(Surya Brita, 1983:43-44)
The procedures of this design applied in this research are as follows:
a. Choose the research subjects and give a test to know the homogeneity of the classes by using cluster random sampling.
b. Analyze the test result statistically with t-test to know the significance of mean difference of the existing classes; it is intended to know the homogeneity of the classes.
c. From all classes, take two classes only as samples. They are experimental and control group
d. Maintain the same condition for both two groups except one thing, for the experimental group is given treatment (X) by teaching them reading through SQ3R.
e. Give post test to both classes.
f. Determine the mean of each group, which measures the mean difference, is significant.
2. Research Variable
Variable of research is what that to be a point in our research. In the research most important to definite the object of research, next it is will hope to get accurate data and true data.
From the explanation above, the main variable of this research is and the sub variable Teaching reading use SQ3R (Survey, question read, recite, review) technique to improve the students reading comprehension in SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangkalan Madura.
3. Research Area
This research is conducted in SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bamgakalan Madura. In other word, the research area is chosen purposively (Mc. Millan, 1992:76). Moreover, for the administration reason, it is possible for the writer to conduct the research at the school.
4. Research Subject
a. Population
Population is the entire research unit that have characteristic from the subjects that will become a scope of the research (Arikunto Suharsim, 1996:25) . In this research, the researcher takes junior high school students to be population of her study.
The researcher will limit the population; the data are taken only from SMP Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangakalan Madura
1) 30 learners from the eight class A
2) 35 learners from the eight class B
3) 30 learners from the eight class C
That total population of this research is 95, besides; there are four teachers who teach English in three classes. Three of classes are chosen by cluster random sampling, as the experimental and control class.
b. Sample
The procedure sample takes random. It is based on the statement that “Not all elements of individual in population have a chance to be sample but it depends on the researcher’s willingness” (Arikunto Suharsimi, 1997:40)
Based on the explanation above, the researcher would not to takes all of the population to be sample of research, but researcher will take 2 classes, 30 learners from the eight class A and 35 learners from the eight class B. The sampling technique used in this research is for purposive sampling technique.
5. Data Collection
Data of this research include; Test, interview, document, and classroom observation.
a. Test
In this research, the test is used to measure English students in the reading comprehension using SQ3R.
As regard the test validity and reliability the test of reading comprehension base on the purpose of research, that is to measure how far the students on the reading test during the treatment (on reading text). In this way, the test content validity can be observation by considering the material stated in the 2006 English curriculum in the second quarter.
The form of the test used is objective test containing multiple choices. The subjective from is not taken because it’s scoring is time consuming and has lower reliability that the objective one (also see. Hughes, 1989:59) , in terms of reliability, Saukah (1997) says that reliability refers to the consistency of the test results of scores. For the reliability of test, Weirs (1990:3) states “if the test is valid, it must be reliable”, therefore, the test reliability will not be established.
b. Interview
In this research, guided interview is used to obtain the supporting data about the English teaching. Mainly the teaching of reading comprehension the interview is conducted with the English teachers.
c. Documents
In this research, documents are used to get some fact about the student’s record of the English teaching , the school, the facilities, and the personnel of Smp Sunan Pajeten Kwanyar Bangakalan Madura .
d. Classroom observation
In this research, classroom observation is used to get secondary data; it is student’s performance in doing the test and teaching learning process in the classroom.
6. Data Analysis
As stated in the previous discussion, the research instrument is also used for data analysis and it includes T-test as follows:

(Hadi, 1998: 443)
Note Xa: Mean of group a
Xb: Mean of group b
Na: Total number subjects of group a
Nb: Total number subjects of group b
S : Total score deviation
The level of significant used in this research is 15 % because it deals with social science, that is linguistics (i.e., see Hadi, 1988:443). For this reason, the result is tasted with the level of significance 5 % (also see Arikunto 1993:352)

REFERENCE

Arikunto Suharsimi, 2006, Prodedur Penelitian, Jakarta; Rinaka cipta

Deas.repec.org

Depdikbud, 1995, Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta : Balai Pustaka

En.wikipedia.com

Hermawan, Ruswandi, dkk., 2006, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar, Bandung : UPI PRESS.

http//sekoah maya. Co.cc

http//www.cup.ac.ok

http//sekoah maya. Co.cc

Rahim, Farida. 2007. Pengajaran Membaca di Sekolah Dasar. Jakarta : Bumi Alaska

Resmini, Novi, dkk. 2006. Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Pembelajaran Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia. Bandung : UPI PRESS.

Resmini, Novi, dkk. 2006. Membaca dan Menulis di SD Teori dan Pengajarannya.

Oc.eab.org

Winataputra, S. Udin, dkk. 1996. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta Depdikbud.

Wiriaatmadja, Rochiati. 2006. Metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Bandung : Remaja Rosdakarya.

www. Asian –elt. Journal.com

www. Spigerling.com




TEACHING READING USE SQ3R
(Survey Question Read, Recite, Review) TECHNIQUE TO MPROVE THE STUDENTS READING COpMPREHENSION IN SMP SUNAN PAJETEN KWANYAR BANGKALAN MADURA


PROPOSAL












Lecture

Lecture:
M. Syaifuddin, M.Ed. (TSL)

By:
Maksum
NIM. D35206015




TARBIYAH FACULTY
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES
SUNAN AMPEL SURABAYA

2009

THE EFFECT OF TEACHING READING THROUGH SQ3R (SURVEY QUESTION READ, RECITE, REVIEW) TECHNIQUES ON STUDENTS READING COMPREHENSION IN MTS. AL-ISHLAH PLOSOBUDEN DEKET LAMONGAN


PROPOSAL














Lecture:


By:
Maksum
NIM. D35206015





TARBIYAH FACULTY
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES
SUNAN AMPEL SURABAYA

2009





1
A. JUDUL PENELITIAN

Penerapan Metode SQ3R untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Membaca
Pemahaman Siswa Kelas V SDN Mayang I Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang.
B. BIDANG KAJIAN
Penelitian tindakan kelas ini akan memfokuskan pada penerapan Metode
SQ3R untuk meningkatkan kemampuan membaca pemahaman siswa di kelas V SDN
Mayang I Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang.
C. PENDAHULUAN
Bahasa Indonesia mempunyai ragam lisan dan tulisan yang kedua-duanya
digunakan dalam situasi formal dan nonformal. Sehingga, guru harus selayaknya
memperkenalkan bahasa Indonesia kepada siswa.
Pada dasarnya, ruang lingkup pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia mencakup
empat aspek, yakni : (1) menyimak, (2) berbicara, (3) membaca, dan (4) menulis
(Depdiknas, 2006 : 23 ).
Pengajaran bahasa Indonesia pada hakekatnya adalah pengajaran keterampilan
berbahasa, bukan pengajaran tentang berbahasa. Keterampilan-keterampilan
berbahasa yang perlu ditekankan dalam pengajaran berbahasa Indonesia adalah
keterampilan reseftif ( mendengarkan dan membaca ) dan keterampilan produktif
( menulis dan berbicara ). Pengajaran berbahasa diawali dengan pengajaran
keterampilan reseptif, sedangkan keterampilan produktif dapat turut tertingkatkan
pada tahapan selanjutnya. Kemudian peningkatan kedua keterampilan tersebut akan
menyatu sebagai kegiatan berbahasa yang terpadu. 2
Membaca merupakan bagian terpadu dari kemampuan berbahasa. Membaca
sangat bersandar pada kemampuan berbahasa. Pendekatan pengalaman berbahasa
dapat digunakan dalam pengajaran membaca. Menurut pendekatan ini, kekuatan
konseptual dan linguistik yang dibawa anak ke sekolah harus digunakan secara
penuh.
Menurut Heilman ( dalam Resmini, dkk, 2006: 234 ), membaca adalah
interaksi dengan bahasa yang sudah dialihkodekan dalam tulisan. Apabila seseorang
dapat berinteraksi dengan bahasa yang sudah dialihkodekan dalam tulisan orang
tersebut dipandang memiliki keterampilan membaca. Apabila dihubungkan dengan
siswa di SD, berarti tujuan pembelajaran membaca adalah agar siswa memilki
keterampilan berinteraksi dengan bahasa yang dialihkodekan dalam tulisan.
Burns, dkk. (dalam Rahim, 2007 : 1) mengemukakan bahwa kemampuan
membaca merupakan sesuatu yang vital dalam suatu masyarakat terpelajar. Namun,
anak-anak yang tidak memahami pentingnya belajar membaca tidak akan termotivasi
untuk belajar. Belajar membaca merupakan usaha yang terus-menerus, dan anak-anak
yang melihat tingginya nilai (value) membaca dalam kegiatan pribadinya akan lebih
giat belajar dibandingkan dengan anak-anak yang tidak menemukan keuntungan dari
kegiatan membaca.
Membaca hendaknya mempunyai tujuan, karena seseorang yang membaca
dengan suatu tujuan, cenderung lebih memahami dibandingkan dengan orang yang
tidak mempunyai tujuan. Dalam kegiatan membaca di kelas, guru seharusnya
menyusun tujuan membaca dengan menyediakan tujuan khusus yang sesuai atau
dengan membantu mereka menyusun tujuan membaca siswa itu sendiri. 3
Namun berdasarkan kenyataan di lapangan, kemampuan siswa dalam
membaca pemahaman di kelas V SDN Mayang I tidak sesuai dengan harapan.
Banyak siswa yang belum mampu menentukan pokok pikiran dan menyimpulkan isi
cerita anak dalam beberapa kalimat. Sehingga hasil belajarnya juga kurang baik. Guru
juga tidak menggunakan metode membaca yang menarik bagi siswa dalam
pembelajaran membaca pemahaman. Berikut ini data awal kemampuan membaca
pemahaman siswa kelas V SDN Mayang I dalam menentukan pokok pikiran dan
menyimpulkan cerita anak dalam beberapa kalimat..
No Nama Siswa Aspek Penilaian
Ide pokok Menyimpulkan Jumlah
Skor
Nilai Ket
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1
1 Andi Riyadi v v 5 50 BT
2 Kania Utami Afifah v v 9 90 T
3 Rifqi Faturohman v v 2 20 BT
4 Muhamad Riswan v v 7 70 T
5 Rendi Fahrudin v v 5 50 BT
6 Adrian v v 6 60 BT
7 Tia Setiawati v v 5 50 BT
8 Irfan Suprianto v v 4 40 BT
9 Wina Nurasfifa v v 9 90 T
10 Ahmad Nawawi v v 2 20 BT
11 Ahrom Hidayat v v 4 40 BT
12 Linawati v v 6 60 BT
13 Laela Nurhidayah v v 8 80 T
14 Nandi Rahmat v v 7 70 T
15 Yeyet Yulianingsih v v 3 30 BT
16 Badriman v v 3 30 BT
17 Dewi Intan v v 4 40 BT
18 Eka Hujaemah v v 8 80 T
19 Novita sari v v 9 90 T
20 Maolani v v 7 70 T
21 Fali Saripudin v v 6 60 BT
22 Kamaludin v v 5 50 BT
23 Rizal Fauzi v v 2 20 BT
24 Risma Wini v v 9 90 T
25 Meli Ariyani v v 4 40 BT
Rata-rata 55,6 4

Berdasarkan data di atas hanya sembilan siswa atau 36% yang sudah tuntas
dalam menentukan pokok pikiran dan menyimpulkan bacaan dalam beberapa kalimat.
Sisanya yaitu enam belas siswa atau 64% siswa belum tuntas.
Membaca pemahaman memerlukan strategi dalam membacanya. Strategi
adalah ilmu dan kiat di dalam memanfaatkan segala sumber yang dapat dikerahkan
untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan. Pengupayaan pencapaian tujuan akhir
digunakan sebagai acuan di dalam menata kekuatan serta menutup kelemahan yang
kemudian diterjemahkan menjadi program kegiatan merupakan pemikiran strategi
Joni ( dalam Rahim, 2007 : 36 )
Dalam usaha memperoleh pemahaman terhadap teks, pembaca menggunakan
metode tertentu. Pemilihan strategi berkaitan erat dengan faktor-faktor yang terlibat
dalam pemahaman, yaitu pembaca teks dan konteks.
Dalam teori membaca dikenal beberapa metode membaca. Pada dasarnya
metode membaca menggambarkan bagaimana pembaca memproses bacaan sehingga
dia memperoleh pemahaman terhadap bacaan tersebut. Salah satu metode yaitu SQ3R
( Survey Question Read Recite Review ). Metode ini merupakan suatu rencana
membaca yang terdiri dari mensurvai isi, membuat pertanyaan, membaca isi,
menceritakan isi bacaan dan meninjau kembali bacaan ( Tarigan, 1994: 35)
Berdasarkan beberapa pendapat di atas. Untuk mengatasi masalah yang
peneliti hadapi adalah dengan menggunakan metode membaca SQ3R. Untuk
selanjutnya penelitian ini diberi judul “Penerapan Metode SQ3R untuk
Meningkatkan Kemampuan Membaca Pemahaman Siswa Kelas V SDN
Mayang I Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang. “ 5
D. PERUMUSAN DAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH
1. Perumusan Masalah
Berdasarkan pada latar belakang masalah maka rumusan masalah dalam
penelitian ini adalah :
a. Bagaimana gambaran penerapan metode SQ3R untuk meningkatkan
kemampuan membaca pemahaman siswa kelas V SDN Mayang I
Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang ?
b. Bagaimana hasil penerapan metode SQ3R untuk meningkatkan
kemampuan membaca pemahaman siswa kelas V SDN Mayang I
Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang ?
2. Pemecahan Masalah
Untuk memecahkan permasalahan yang telah dirumuskan, maka harus
dikembangkan metode pembelajaran yang dapat menyelesaikan permasalahan
tersebut. Diantaranya dengan menggunakan metode SQ3R.
Tarigan ( 1994 : 35 ) menjelaskan bahwa Metode SQ3R merupakan suatu
rencana studi yang terpadu untuk memahami serta menguasai isi bacaan. Adapun
rencana itu meliputi :
a. mensurvai isi ( survey : S )
b. mengajukan pertanyaan yang dapat membimbing kita dalam kegiatan
membaca ( question : Q ).
c. Membaca isi ( read : R1 )
d. Menceritakan isi bacaan dengan kata-kata kita sendiri ( recite : R2 ) 6
e. Meninjau kembali isi bahan bacaan itu ; apakah yang kita ceritakan
dengan kata-kata sendiri itu sesuai dengan isi yang sebenarnya atau tidak (
review : R3 )
Metode ini memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk memahami
bacaan melalui rencana yang terdiri dari lima tahap.
E. TUJUAN PENELITIAN
Secara umum penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperbaiki praktik
pembelajaran membaca pemahaman, secara khusus bertujuan untuk :
1. Mengetahui gambaran penerapan metode SQ3R untuk meningkatkan
kemampuan membaca pemahaman siswa Kelas V SDN Mayang I
Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang.
2. Mengetahui hasil penerapan metode SQ3R dalam meningkatkan
kemampuan membaca pemahaman siswa kelas V SDN Mayang I
Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang.
F. MANFAAT HASIL PENELITIAN
Adapun manfaat yang diharapkan dari hasil penelitian tindakan kelas dengan
penerapan metode SQ3R sebagai berikut :
1. Bagi siswa, ikut berperan aktif dalam pembelajaran dan meningkatkan
kemampuan membaca pemahaman.
2. Bagi Guru, hasil penelitian memberikan pengetahuan dan pengalaman
juga solusi terhadap permasalahan yang dihadapi siswa dan guru.
3. Bagi sekolah, diharapkan dapat memberikan kontribusi dalam usaha untuk
memperbaiki dan meningkatkan kualitas praktik pembelajaran di sekolah. 7
G. BATASAN ISTILAH
1. Metode SQ3R adalah suatu rencana studi yang terpadu untuk memahami
serta menguasai isi bacaan. Adapun rencana itu meliputi :
a. mensurvai isi ( survey : S )
b. mengajukan pertanyaan yang dapat membimbing kita dalam
kegiatan membaca ( question : Q ).
c. Membaca isi ( read : R1 )
d. Menceritakan isi bacaan dengan kata-kata kita sendiri ( recite :
R2 )
e. Meninjau kembali isi bahan bacaan itu ; apakah yang kita
ceritakan dengan kata-kata sendiri itu sesuai dengan isi yang
sebenarnya atau tidak ( review : R3 )
2. Membaca pemahaman adalah kegiatan membaca yang dilakukan secara
intensif sehingga diperoleh pemahaman tentang isi teks yang dibaca.
3. Meningkatkan kemampuan adalah membuat prestasi hasil belajar siswa
jadi lebih baik dan meningkatkan kemampuan siswa khususnya dalam
membaca pemahaman.
H. KAJIAN PUSTAKA
1. Kajian Pustaka
A. Membaca
1. Pengertian Membaca
2. Manfaat Membaca
3. Tujuan Membaca 8
4. Komponen Kegiatan Membaca
B. Pendekatan, Strategi, dan Teknik Membaca
1. Pendekatan Mengajar
2. Strategi Membaca
3. Teknik Membaca
C. Pembelajaran Membaca di SD
1. Tujuan
2. Ruang lingkup
3. Metode pembelajaran membaca di SD
Tarigan ( 1994 : 35 ) menjelaskan bahwa Metode SQ3R merupakan suatu
rencana studi yang terpadu untuk memahami serta menguasai isi bacaan. Adapun
rencana itu meliputi :
a. mensurvai isi ( survey : S )
b. mengajukan pertanyaan yang dapat membimbing kita dalam
kegiatan membaca ( question : Q ).
c. Membaca isi ( read : R1 )
d. Menceritakan isi bacaan dengan kata-kata kita sendiri (recite : R2 )
e. Meninjau kembali isi bahan bacaan itu ; apakah yang kita ceritakan
dengan kata-kata sendiri itu sesuai dengan isi yang sebenarnya atau
tidak ( review : R3 )
Metode ini memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk memahami
bacaan melalui rencana yang terdiri dari lima tahap.
9
2. Temuan Hasil yang Relevan
3. Hipotesis Tindakan
Jika metode SQ3R diterapkan dalam pembelajaran membaca
pemahaman maka dapat meningkatkan kemampuan siswa kelas V SDN
Mayang I Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang.
I. RENCANA DAN PROSEDUR PENELITIAN
1. Rencana Penelitian
a. Lokasi
Penelitian dilakukan di SDN Mayang I yang beralamat di Desa
Cisalak Kecamatan Cisalak Kabupaten Subang. Alasan pemilihan sekolah
ini karena sekolah ini memerlukan inovasi pembelajaran, khususnya
dalam keterampilan membaca pemahaman.
b. Subjek Penelitian
Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas V SDN Mayang I yang
berjumlah 25 orang siswa, terdiri dari 13 siswa laki-laki dan 12 siswa
perempuan.
c. Waktu Penelitian
Lamanya penelitian yang dilakukan sekitar empat bulan.
2. Prosedur Penelitian
Prosedur penelitian yang akan dilakukan dalam penelitian tindakan
kelas ini adalah berbentuk siklus, setiap siklus terdiri dari 1 pertemuan ( 3 jam
pelajaran ). Pada akhir pertemuan diharapkan tercapainya tujuan yang
diinginkan dapat tercapai dengan baik. Dalam penelitian tindakan kelas ini 10
peneliti menggunakan model Spiral Kemmis dan MC Taggart ( dalam
Kasbuloh 1998 : 114 ) secara berulang-ulang, semakin lama, diharapkan
semakin meningkat perubahannya atau pencapaian hasilnya.
Dalam perencanaan Kemmis menggunakan sistem spiral yang dimulai
dengan rencana, tindakan, pengamatan, refleksi, perencanaan kembali
merupakan dasar untuk suatu ancang-ancang pemecahan permasalahan.

REFLECTIF PLAN

OBSERVE
ACTION

REFLECTIF PLAN

OBSERVE
ACTION

Model Desain Kemmis & Mc Taggart ( dalam Hermawan, 2006 : 128 )
Apabila dicermati pada bagan di atas, desain model Kemmis & Taggart ini pada
hakekatnya berupa perangkat-perangkat atau untaian-untaian dengan satu perangkat
terdiri dari empat komponen, yaitu perencanaan, tindakan, pengamatan, dan refleksi.
Keempat untaian yang berupa untaian tersebut dipandang sebagai satu siklus. Oleh 11
karena itu, pengertian siklus pada kesempatan ini ialah suatu putaran kegiatan yang
terdiri dari perencanaan, tindakan, observasi, dan refleksi.
Model siklus tersebut meliputi langkah-langkah kegiatan sebagai berikut :
a. Perencanaan
1. Mengadakan penelitian awal untuk mengidentifikasi permasalahan yang
perlu segera diatasi. Dalam tahap ini peneliti melakukan observasi pada
proses pembelajaran dan wawancara terhadap siswa kelas V dan guru
kelas V.
2. Membuat lembar observasi bagi guru dan siswa untuk melihat proses
pembelajaran membaca pemahaman dengan menggunakan Metode SQ3R.
Lembar observasi tentang kinerja guru dan aktivitas siswa selama proses
pembelajaran berlangsung. Selain itu membuat pedoman wawancara bagi
siswa tentang kesan-kesannya selama proses pembelajaran.
3. Membuat silabus dan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran.
4. Membuat alat evaluasi untuk melihat peningkatan hasil belajar siswa
setelah metode SQ3R diterapkan.
5. Membuat media pembelajaran yang mendukung proses pembelajaran.
b. Pelaksanaan
• Tahap Persiapan
- Membuat rencana pembelajaran.
- Menyiapkan materi pelajaran
- Menyiapkan sumber belajar
- Menyiapkan media pembelajaran 12
- Menyiapkan alat pengumpul data
• Kegiatan Awal
- Menjelaskan tujuan, manfaat dan langkah-langkah pembelajaran.
- Mengadakan apersepsi dengan bertanya jawab sekitar bacaan yang
pernah dibaca.
• Kegiatan Inti
- Guru memberikan bacaan kepada siswa.
- Siswa mensurvai isi bacaan yang diberikan oleh guru.
- Siswa membuat pertanyaan tentang pokok pikiran setiap paragraf.
- Siswa membaca bacaan yang diberikan oleh guru.
- Siswa menceritakan kembali isi bacaan dengan kata-katanya sendiri.
- Siswa meninjau kembali isi bacaan.
- Guru menyuruh siswa menuliskan pokok pikiran cerita pada setiap
paragrap.
- Melakukan tes akhir secara individu.
- Melakukan penghitungan skor.
• Kegiatan Akhir
- Menyimpulkan materi
- Memberikan tugas pekerjaan rumah ( PR )
- Menutup pelajaran.


13
c. Observasi
Observasi dilakukan bersama dengan dilaksanakannya tindakan.
Observasi dilakukan untuk mengumpulkan data yaitu kegiatan guru dan
aktivitas siswa selama proses pembelajaran berlangsung.
d. Refleksi
Peneliti menganalisis semua informasi yang terekam dalam proses
pembelajaran melalui format observasi dan hasil evaluasi yang telah
dilakukan. Kemudian memperbaiki proses pembelajaran yang telah
dilakukan pada siklus I untuk menyusun tindakan yang akan dilakukan
pada siklus II.
3. Instrumen Penelitian
a. Format Observasi
Observasi dilakukan untuk mengamati dan mengetahui kinerja guru dan
aktivitas siswa dalam pembelajaran mengenai membaca pemahaman dengan
menggunakan metode SQ3R..
b. Format Wawancara
Wawancara dilakukan untuk memperoleh data tentang hambatan dan kesulitan
serta kesan-kesan selama proses pembelajaran berlangsung.
c. Format Angket
Evaluasi yang berupa daftar pertanyaan atau pernyataan yang dijawab oleh
siswa yang berkenaan dengan sikap dan suasana pembelajaran.
d. Format Catatan Lapangan 14
Catatan Lapangan dilakukan untuk mencatat kejadian-kejadian penting yang
muncul tak diduga sebelumnya, yang mungkin tidak direncanakan pada
pedoman observasi.
e. Soal
Tes hasil belajar dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat keberhasilan siswa
sebelum dan sesudah tindakan dilaksanakan dengan cara membandingkan
nilai yang diperoleh siswa dengan KKM ( Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal ) yang
ditetapkan oleh guru.
4. Teknik Pengolahan Data
Data diperoleh dari hasil observasi, wawancara, angket, dan catatan lapangan
untuk penilaian proses. Tes hasil belajar dilakukan untuk mengetahui hasil
belajar siswa terhadap hasil membaca pemahaman. Pengolahan data dilakukan
dengan analisis data secara kualitatif. Data hasil belajar diolah dengan
menggunakan penghitungan sebagai berikut :
Nilai = Skor perolehan siswa X 100
Skor Maksimal

Nilai yang diperoleh siswa dibandingkan dengan Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal
( KKM ) untuk kompetensi dasar dan indikator membaca pemahaman.




15
5. Validasi Data
Validasi yang akan digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu validasi data
menurut Hopkins ( 1993, Wiriaatmaja, 2005: 168-171 ) sebagai berikut :
a. Member Check, yaitu memeriksa kembali keterangan-keterangan atau
informasi data yang diperoleh selama observasi atau wawancara dari narasumber,
siapa pun juga ( kepala sekolah, guru, teman sejawat guru, siswa, dan lain-lain )
apakah keterangan, atau informasi itu tetap sifatnya atau tidak berubah sehingga
dapat dipastikan keajegannya dan data itu terperiksa kebenarannya.
b. Triangulasi, yaitu memeriksa kebenaran hipotesis, konstruk, atau analisi
dengan membandingkan hasil orang lain, missal mitra peneliti lain yang hadir dan
menyaksikan situasi yang sama.
c. Expert Opinion, yaitu dilakukan dengan meminta nasihat kepada pakar, dalam
hal ini pembimbing penelitian. Pembimbing akan memeriksa semua tahapan
kegiatan penelitian dan memberikan arahan atau judgements terhadap masalah-
masalah peneliti yang peneliti kemukakan.







16

1. JADWAL PENELITIAN




















17
K. DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Cahyani, Isah, dkk. ( 2006 ). Kemampuan Berbahasa Indonesia di Sekolah Dasar.
Bandung: UPI PRESS.
Depdikbud. ( 1995 ). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta : Balai Pustaka.
Hermawan, Ruswandi, dkk. ( 2006 ). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar.
Bandung : UPI PRESS.
Kasbuloh, Kasihani .(1998). Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Malang : Depdikbud.
Rahim, Farida. (2007). Pengajaran Membaca di Sekolah Dasar. Jakarta : Bumi
Aksara.
Resmini, Novi, dkk. ( 2006 ). Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Pembelajaran bahasa
dan Sastra Indonesia. Bandung : UPI PRESS.
Resmini, Novi, dkk. ( 2006 ). Membaca dan Menulis di SD Teori dan Pengajarannya.
Bandung : UPI PRESS.
Winataputra, S. Udin, dkk. ( 1996 ). Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta : Depdikbud.
Wiriaatmadja, Rochiati. ( 2006 ). Metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Bandung :
Remaja Rosdakarya.





18
L. LAMPIRAN-LAMPIRAN



RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Indonesia
Kelas/ Semester : V/ II
Waktu : 3X 35 menit ( 1 X Pertemuan )

A. Standar Kompetensi
Menyimpulkan isi cerita dalam beberapa kalimat.
B. Kompetensi dasar
Menyimpulkan isi cerita anak dalam beberapa kalimat.
C. Indikator
1. Menentukan pokok pikiran.
2. Menyimpulkan isi cerita anak dalam beberapa kalimat.
D. Tujuan Pembelajaran
1. Siswa dapat menentukan pokok pikiran dengan benar.
2. Siswa dapat menyimpulkan isi cerita anak dalam beberapa kalimat dengan
tepat.
E. Materi
Membaca pemahaman suatu cerita anak dengan cara menentukan pokok
pikiran dan menyimpulkan dalam beberapa kalimat. 19
F. Metode
• Ceramah
• Tanya jawab
• Penugasan
• Presentasi
• Diskusi
G. Langkah-langkah Pembelajaran
1. Kegiatan awal ( 10 menit )
• Berdoa menurut agama dan kepercayaan masing-masing.
• Mengecek kehadiran siswa.
• Apersepsi dengan bertanya jawab tentang teks yang pernah dibacanya.
• Menjelaskan tujuan, manfaat dan langkah-langkah pembelajaran.
2. Kegiatan inti ( 65 menit )
• Guru membagikan lembar kerja siswa ( LKS ).
• Masing-masing siswa mensurvai isi bacaan.
• Siswa mengajukan pertanyaan yang dapat membimbing siswa dalam kegiatan
membaca.
• Siswa membaca isi teks bacaan.
• Siswa menceritakan isi bacaan dengan kata-kata sendiri.
• Siswa meninjau kembali isi bacaan.
• Guru mengadakan evaluasi secara individu.
• Melaksanakan penskoran hasil evaluasi siswa.
3. Kegiatan akhir ( 5 menit ) 20
• Menyimpulkan materi yang telah dipelajari.
• .Memberikan tugas membaca sebagai PR.
• Guru menutup pelajaran.
H. Sumber / Alat dan Bahan
1. Sumber
a. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan mata pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia
kelas V Sekolah Dasar.
b. Buku Saya Senang Berbahasa Indonesia, Kelas V, PT Erlangga.
2. Alat dan Bahan
a. LKS.
I. Evaluasi
1. Prosedur tes : Proses dan tes akhir.
2. Jenis tes : Tulisan
3. Bentuk tes : Uraian
4. Alat penilaian : Soal ( terlampir ) dan Lembar pengamatan.
5. Skor penilaian : Skor akhir dan Proses membaca.
Kegiatan evaluasi akhir ( 25 menit )
1. Guru memberikan soal
2. Siswa menjawab soal



21

SOAL EVALUASI AKHIR
Nama : ……….
Kelas : ……….

a. Tulislah pokok pikiran dalam tiap paragraf dan buatlah kesimpulan dalam
beberapa kalimat cerita yang berjudul “Naik Bus di Kapal Feri “!
a. Pokok pikiran




b. Kesimpulan









22

KUNCI JAWABAN
1. Menentukan pokok pikiran
- Nyoman adalah siswa kelas lima SD Sartika.
- Nyoman berencana naik pesawat.
- Akhirnya mereka sepakat pulang naik bus sekaligus naik kapal feri.
- Pgi-pagi, mereka sudah berngkat ke terminal bus.
- Bus yang mereka tumpangi sampai di dermaga.
2. Menyimpulkan dalam beberapa kalimat
Nyoman adalah siswa kelas V. Ia sedang berlibur di Denpsar. Kemudian akan pulang
ke Bandung. Nyoman pulang naik bus sekaligus naik kapal feri.
KRITERIA PENILAIAN
Kriteria penilaian menentukan pokok pikiran :
Skala penilaian :
1. Skor 5 jika siswa dapat menuliskan 5 pokok pikiran dengan tepat tepat.
2. Skor 4 jika siswa dapat menuliskan 4 pokok pikiran dengan tepat tepat.
3. Skor 3 jika siswa dapat menuliskan 3 pokok pikiran dengan tepat tepat.
4. Skor 2 jika siswa dapat menuliskan 2 pokok pikiran dengan tepat tepat.
5. Skor 1 jika siswa dapat menuliskan 1 pokok pikiran dengan tepat tepat.
Kriteria penilaian menyimpulkan cerita
Skala penilaian 1-5.

23

FORMAT PENGOLAHAN NILAI

No Nama Siswa Aspek Penilaian Jumlah
Skor
Nilai Ket
Pokok Pikiran Kesimpulan
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1















JUMLAH
NILAI RATA-
RATA

PERSENTASE



















24

PENENTUAN KRITERIA KETUNTASAN MINIMAL ( KKM )
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Indonesia
Kelas/ Semester : V/ II
STANDAR
KOMPETENSI
KOMPETENSI
DASAR DAN
INDIKATOR
KRITERIA PENENTUAN KKM KKM
( % )
Kompleksitas
(Kesulitan dan
kerumitan)
Daya
Dukung
Intake Siswa
(Kemampuan)
Menyimpulkan isi
cerita dalam
beberapa kalimat.

Menyimpulkan isi
cerita dalam
beberapa kalimat.
1.Menentukan
pokok pikiran.
2. Menyimpulkan
isi cerita anak
dalam beberapa
kalimat.








70




75













70




75












70




60












70




70





Rata-rata KKM
Kompetensi Dasar
70
Rentang nilai pada setiap kriteria :
b. Kompleksitas : Tinggi = 50-64
Sedang = 65-80
Rendah = 81-100
c. Daya Dukung : Tinggi = 81-100
Sedang = 65-80
Rendah = 50-64
d. Intake Siswa : Tinggi = 81-100
Sedang = 65-80
Rendah = 50-64





25

LEMBAR KERJA SISWA (LKS)
Nama : ………….
Kelas : …………

Materi : Membaca intensif

Langkah-langkah kegiatan :
1. Tulislah pokok pikiran pada tiap paragraf dan buatlah kesimpulan dalam
beberapa kalimat cerita !
a. Survai isi bacaan.
b. Buatlah pertanyaan yang dapat membimbing kalian dalam kegiatan
membaca.
c. Bacalah isi teks bacaan.
d. Ceritakan isi bacaan dengan kata-kata sendiri.
e. Tinjau kembali isi bacaan.
1. Pokok pikiran




2. Kesimpulan



26
FORMAT OBSERVASI AKTIFITAS SISWA


No

Proses KBM
Pelaksanaan
Ya Tidak
1. Siswa memberikan komentar dan mengajukan pertanyaan
tentang pelajaran.

2. Siswa dapat memberikan jawaban atas pertanyaan-pertanyaan
guru.

3. Siswa mengerjakan tugas dengan baik sesuai waktu yang
disedikan.

4. Siswa menyajikan jawaban di depan kelas.
5. Siswa membandingkan jawaban mereka.
6. Siswa bereaksi terhadap jawaban temannya.
7. Siswa berpendapat terhadap jawaban siswa lain.
8. Siswa terlibat langsung dalam beragam kegiatan kelas selama
pembelajaran.

9. Siswa tampak antusias selama mengikuti pembelajaran.
10. Siswa menarik kesimpulan dari pelajaran saat itu.
Persentase








27

FORMAT OBSERVASI KINERJA GURU
No Proses KBM Pelaksanaan
Ya Tidak
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Perencanaan
Membuat rencana pembelajaran.
Menyiapkan materi pelajaran.
Menyiapkan sumber belajar.
Menyiapkan media pembelajaran
Menyiapkan alat pengumpul data

2.
a.

b.

c.
d.

e.
f.

g.

Pelaksanaan
Menjelaskan tujuan, manfaat dan langkah-langkah
pembelajaran.
Mengadakan apersepsi dengan mengajukan pertanyan tentang
cerita anak.
Guru menyuruh masing-masing siswa mensurvai isi bacaan.
Guru menyuruh siswa mengajukan pertanyaan yang dapat
membimbing siswa dalam kegiatan membaca.
Guru menyuruh siswa membaca isi teks bacaan.
Guru menyuruh siswa menceritakan isi bacaan dengan kata-
kata sendiri.
Guru menyuruh siswa meninjau kembali isi bacaan.

3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Evaluasi
Melaksankan evaluasi proses dan hasil.
Menyimpulkan materi bersama siswa.
Melakukan penskoran perkembangan siswa
Memberikan penugasan berupa PR

Jumlah
Persentase

Keterangan : Pada setiap indikator yang dilaksanakan diisi dengn tanda ceklis ( v )
Kriteria Penilaian :
i. Baik, jika indikator yang dilaksanakan tercapai 76% - 100 %
ii. Cukup, jika indikator yang dilaksankan tercapai 26% - 75%
iii. Kurang, jika indikator yang dilaksanakan tercapai 1% - 25%



28
LEMBAR OBSERVASI SISWA DALAM PROSES PEMBELAJARAN

No Nama Siswa Aspek yang diamati Ket
Perhatian Keaktifan








Deskriptor tiap aspek :
A..Perhatian
1. Siswa memusatkan perhatian terhadap materi yang dipelajari
2. Menyelesaikan tugas membaca tanpa putus asa.
2. Tidak bermain-main dalam belajar.
B. Keaktifan
1. Mengajukan pertanyaan
2. Menjawab pertanyaan
3. Berpartisipasi dalam pembelajaran
Keterangan :
Baik jika 3 deskriptor teramati
Cukup jika 2 deskriptor teramati
Kurang jika 1 deskriptor teramati





29
PEDOMAN WAWANCARA UNTUK GURU
Nama Guru :
Tanggal :
No Pertanyaan Jawaban Ket
1 Apakah Ibu/ Bapak memahami metode
SQ3R?

2 Bagaimana langkah-langkah membaca
dengan metode SQ3R menurut Ibu/Bapak ?

3 Bagaimana aktivitas siswa dengan metode
SQ3R dalam memahami bacaan ?

4 Hambatan apa yang Ibu/bapak hadapi dalam
menerapkan metode ini ?

5











30

PEDOMAN WAWANCARA UNTUK SISWA
Nama Siswa :
Tanggal :
No Pertanyaan Jawaban Ket
1 Bagaimana menurutmu membaca dengan
menggunakan metode SQ3R ?

2 Apakah kamu mengalami kesulitan ? ?
3 Apakah kamu mengikuti langkah-langkah
metode SQ3R ?

4 Bagaimana kesannya terhadap pembelajaran
dengan menggunakan metode SQ3R ?

5

Kesimpulan









31
ANGKET UNTUK SISWA
Nama siswa :
Tanggal :
Isilah dengan tanda ceklis (v) pada kolom ya atau tidak sesuai dengan
pendapatmu !
No Pernyataan Pendapat Ket
Ya Tidak
1.
2

3.
4.
5.
• Saya mensurvai isi bacaan.
• Saya mengajukan pertanyaan yang
dapat membimbing siswa dalam
kegiatan membaca.
• Saya membaca isi teks bacaan.
• Saya menceritakan isi bacaan
dengan kata-kata sendiri.
• Saya meninjau kembali isi bacaan.










32
FORMAT CATATAN LAPANGAN
Tindakan ( Siklus ) :
Hari/ tanggal :
Waktu :
Pertemuan ke :
Aspek Hal yang terjadi Komentar
Kegiatan awal






Kegiatan inti




Kegiatan akhir Read More......

bromo memories

Name: maksum
Nim :d35206015
THE IMPRESSION AND MASSAGE

The IMPRESSION of Bromo mountain

when I and friends until there approximately at 11 o'clock in the evening, on the Saturday we felt happy but we felt cold, moreover when touched water my skin was poured ice . at the following morning I and friends went to see beauty of nature that was very beautiful like the flower . available valleys there , also the widespread hill where clout that covered in the air .there ,I am and the friend t-friend played sport and made the game for the heating , at the morning we will open the agenda but our teacher's was not came. and finally the agenda was also postponed through to after prayed dhuhur.
After pray dhuhur the child gathered area and the agenda was opened by Mr.Milall , it was continued with the game that was formed in one group that consisted of seven person .at the attraction the children expressed skill them with English , many of the them has a good aptitude, in the middle group, the game was not continue ,because of rain and finally teachers ordered to back the boarding house and the agenda was postponed till tonight.
When the agenda night was continued and they also did not lose good compared to the appearance of the children during the day, in that was most interesting the group that exhibited his girl's child who was falling in love. The next day we were told to go hunting tourists to give the question that was the task from academic .at that the morning , we departed for Bromo Mount in a proceeding manner by foot, and evidently our place very far from the bromo mountain. we immediately hunted white person-pretty and handsome, we introduced ourselves we also talked with them like along with:

Maksum :way you came in Indonesian ?

Barry : holiday
Jenny : interest

Maksum : were you knew bromo mountain and anther tourism ?
Barry : from books
Jenny : anther tourism

Maksum : how many tourism you had been arriving ?

Barry : jakrta, denpasar, bogor, malang, bandung,
Jenny : what do you know about the Indonesian culture ..?

Maksum : what do you knew about Indonesian culture ?

Barry : religion

Maksum : Culture whether that was same around here if in compared with your Culture ?
Barry : Indonesian people are Unique

Maksum : If you saw Indonesia public, what suggested was appropriate you gave?

barry : to study heard :


story
When I was asked the tourism about her study, especially L2, they tell us like this, “last time when I study language, I always hear music, read some of books and other.

Maksum : thy students I your country, if they studied language they do like us?

Barry : al right, they were does like you.

Maksum : what do you do if you study other language?

Barry : read of books

Jenny : hear music

Maksum : what your suggested for student whom were studying language?

Barry : they have to listening music

Massage

For all the committee so that in the future more professional in do the task. And for my friends don’t forgot the of the our memory in there.




Name: Abdurohman
Nim :d35206016
THE IMPRESSION AND MASSAGE

The IMPRESSION of Bromo mountain

when I and friends until there approximately at 11 o'clock in the evening, on the Saturday we felt happy but we felt cold, moreover when touched water my skin was poured ice . at the following morning I and friends went to see beauty of nature that was very beautiful like the flower . available valleys there , also the widespread hill where clout that covered in the air .there ,I am and the friend t-friend played sport and made the game for the heating , at the morning we will open the agenda but our teacher's was not came. and finally the agenda was also postponed through to after prayed dhuhur.
After pray dhuhur the child gathered area and the agenda was opened by Mr.Milall , it was continued with the game that was formed in one group that consisted of seven person .at the attraction the children expressed skill them with English , many of the them has a good aptitude, in the middle group, the game was not continue ,because of rain and finally teachers ordered to back the boarding house and the agenda was postponed till tonight.
When the agenda night was continued and they also did not lose good compared to the appearance of the children during the day, in that was most interesting the group that exhibited his girl's child who was falling in love. The next day we were told to go hunting tourists to give the question that was the task from academic .at that the morning , we departed for Bromo Mount in a proceeding manner by foot, and evidently our place very far from the bromo mountain. we immediately hunted white person-pretty and handsome, we introduced ourselves we also talked with them like along with:

Maksum :way you came in Indonesian ?

Barry : holiday
Jenny : interest

Maksum : were you knew bromo mountain and anther tourism ?
Barry : from books
Jenny : anther tourism

Maksum : how many tourism you had been arriving ?

Barry : jakrta, denpasar, bogor, malang, bandung,
Jenny : what do you know about the Indonesian culture ..?

Maksum : what do you knew about Indonesian culture ?

Barry : religion

Maksum : Culture whether that was same around here if in compared with your Culture ?
Barry : Indonesian people are Unique

Maksum : If you saw Indonesia public, what suggested was appropriate you gave?

barry : to study heard :


story
When I was asked the tourism about her study, especially L2, they tell us like this, “last time when I study language, I always hear music, read some of books and other.

Maksum : thy students I your country, if they studied language they do like us?

Barry : al right, they were does like you.

Maksum : what do you do if you study other language?

Barry : read of books

Jenny : hear music

Maksum : what your suggested for student whom were studying language?

Barry : they have to listening music

. PROCESSING INTERACTION. Pembaharuan yang berpangkalan di Krashen’s masukan hipotesa (Krashen 1982) have menguasai linguistik terapan selama tiga dasawarsa terakhir. Kebanyakan yang sudah lalai mempertunjukkan bahwa mereka memungkinkan pembelajar memperoleh tatabahasa tepat (Kemilau 2005). VanPatten’s ‘processing instruction’ (VanPatten 2002a) adalah kekecualian.

VanPatten menyetujui tugas pokok masukan dan penggunaan masa ‘input teoretis model processing’ (IP) untuk proses kognitif yang terjadi waktu masukan is dimengerti dan diintegrasikan ke dalam interlanguages. He characterizes IP sebagai terlibat bagaimana pembelajar mengerti tatabahasa akar dan memperolehnya (ibid. : 757). Tetapi, dia memandang IP yang dipicu oleh kontak ruang kelas sederhana untuk memasukkan setidak cukup untuk membawa tentang tepat akuisisi.

3. Sebagai pemecahan masalah ini, dia mengemukakan bahwa pembelajar perlu diajar perintah bagaimana caranya untuk mengolah masukan untuk memperbaiki memperoleh tatabahasa akar. Bentuk mengajar ini dia sudah menyebut ‘processing instruction’ (PI). Meliputi mendesak pembelajar untuk mengakui tatabahasa di masukan (ibid. : 764). Ada tiga bagian dasar kepada PI: 1 Pembelajar diberikan keterangan tatabahasa. 2 orang Pembelajar disiagakan sampai masalah mereka mungkin menemukan dengan masukan, teristimewa yang itu yang disebabkan oleh perbedaan antara tatabahasa bahasa sasaran dan keL1. 3 orang Pembelajar kemudian melakukan penggunaan di yang mereka perlu mengerti struktur untuk mengerti arti. 4,.Thus, memakai masalah perintah kata sebagai ilustrasi, seorang guru sudah mungkin mengajar penggunaan ‘have’ sebagai kausatif, sebagai di, misalnya, ‘The guru mempunyai dilakukan mahasiswa task’. Sudah memberikan keterangan gramatikal,

Tetapi, guru akan membaur dengan orang lain contoh seperti itu di yang kata benda pertama adalah subyek kata kerja utama, misalnya ‘My bapak membersihkan tempat bagi saya. ’ (sebaiknya diperhatikan PI itu ialah applicable sampai semua masalah gramatikal, entah mereka ialah kata-perintah berhubungan atau lain. ) ELT Journal Volume 61/2 April 2007; doi:10.1093/elt/ccm009 161 ª ª The Author 2007. Menerbitkan oleh Oxford University Press; semua hak-hak dipesan. Dengan begitu, di intisari, mengolah perintah meliputi guru dalam memungkinkan pembelajar mendengar (atau membaca) masukan dan untuk mengakui struktur akar therein. Ini ialah, tentu saja, tak ada tugas mudah. Kali ketrampilan wicara alami adalah begitu cepat bahwa kebanyakan pembelajar hanya mengakui kata dan penggunaan tertentu mereka untuk menebak bermaksud yang utuh dan ialah dengan begitu tak dapat memahami struktur akar. Latihan sering di PI ialah oleh karena itu perlu. Teori dan penting mengadakan perbedaan


Mendukung empiris Sebagian Besar pembaharuan baru saja macam ini tidak didukung oleh bukti bukti empiris yang lebih (Kemilau: ibid. ). Sebelum menganjurkannya di VanPatten dan Cadierno (1993), penelitian diadakan membandingkan PI, mengajar tatabahasa tradisional (TGT), dan ‘strong’ mengajar bahasa komunikatif (SCLT) dengan tak ada perintah tatabahasa. Kesimpulan menunjukkan PI untuk menjadi yang paling efektif dan SCLT yang paling sedikit, dengan TGTa sedikit lebih tidak tak efektif daripada PI. Nevertheless, beberapa sarjana sudah meragukan baik kesimpulan (DeKeyser maupun Sokalski 1996) dan model teoretis (DeKeyser et al. 2002) tanpa, tetapi, meragukan ragu-ragu pada haketatnya. Untuk pengertian lebih lanjut, berbunyi baik artikel yang bersebutan di atas maupun VanPatten’s bantahan (VanPatten 2002b) dianjurkan. Conclusion PI bisa dimengerti sebagai pemecahan praktis kesukaran pembelajar mempunyai mengubah mengerti keterangan gramatikal ke dalam penggunaan komunikatif oleh mereka. Namun, guru yang berpikir untuk menambahkan PI ke mereka repertoire mengajar tatabahasa


USING PEER FEEDBECK.

Memakai umpan balik kawan sebaya di tulisan ESL kelas Paul Rollinson Walaupun baik penelitian dan latihan secara umum sudah mendukung penggunaan aktivitas umpan balik kawan sebaya di kelas tulisan ESL dan sebesar L2, banyak guru (dan kebanyakan mahasiswa) ialah kurang dari meyakinkan kegunaannya di situasi khusus mereka sendiri. Tujuan artikel ini akan brie?y meringkaskan beberapa argumen utama di mendahulukan dan melawan umpan balik kawan sebaya, dan untuk menerangkan bagaimana guru bisa memperlihatkan konteks positif untuk e=ective kelompok sebaya jawaban oleh penyelenggara prosedur dan latihan daksa. Introduction Although tahun-tahun ini penggunaan umpan balik kawan sebaya di bahasa Inggris sebagai Bahasa kedua (ESL) menulis ruang kelas secara umum sudah disangga di kesusasteraan sebagai panduan yang mungkin berharga untuk pertemuan silaturahminya, kognitif, a=ective, dan metodologis bene > ts (melihat, misalnya, Mendonça dan Johnson 1994; Villamil dan de Guerrero 1996), sangsi atas bagian banyak guru dan mahasiswa ESL itu ialah

1996), ragu-ragu atas bagian banyak guru dan mahasiswa ESL itu tidak tak biasa. Guru mungkin mempertanyakan nilainya dalam konteks khusus mereka, atau keajaiban bagaimana waktu seperti itu yang memakan aktivitas bisa dicari jalan tengahnya dengan keterbatasan jalan atau ujian. Mahasiswa mungkin mempunyai semakin banyak ragu-ragu: mereka tak pasti tentang maksud dan keuntungannya, mungkin rasa mereka secara naluriah bahwa satu-satunya lebih baik writer—or seorang penduduk asli speaker—is quali > ed untuk menilai atau mengomentari kerja mereka yang ditulis. Mereka mungkin merasakan umpan balik itu yang disambut dari teman sekelas yang derajat Inggrisnya adalah kurang lebih yang sama sebagai mereka adalah pilihan buruk ke ‘real thing’—that ialah, teacher’s notasi yang berpena merah yang berkala. Dengan sedih, persepsi ini mungkin mencegah seorang guru melibatkan mahasiswa di apa bisa, diberi kondisi benar, sangat profesional > interaksi meja atas banyak hitungan. Kertas ini, lalu, akan membicarakan beberapa keprihatinan nyata ini, dan juga memusatkan pikiran pada beberapa persoalan praktis
Jumlah besar penelitian sudah dikerjakan kembali dua dasawarsa terakhir ke dalam nilai di=erent kinds jawaban o=ered kepada penulis mahasiswa, baik di L1, maupun makin bertambah di L2. Belajar biasanya sudah menumpukan baik di guru atau menatap jawaban, atau sudah membandingkan baik, maupun sudah melihat di di=erent kinds jawaban (e.g. Pujian atau kritik, intervensi lawan > nal komentar wajib militer, menggolongkan lawan menggolongkan, dan semacamnya) dan mereka e=ect atas sikap mahasiswa ke dan perbuatan secara tertulis (melihat, misalnya, Bongkahan 1999; Jacobs et al. 1998). Suatu lebih banyak signi > logat (untuk tidak mengatakan nyata) wawasan yang sudah muncul adalah pengikut-pengikut, di bukan ELT Journal Volume 59/1 Januari 2005 © Oxford University Press 23 doi: 10.1093/elt/cci003 Urutan khusus: tulisan baik memerlukan revisi; penulis perlu untuk menulis untuk speci > C pertemuan; tulisan sebaiknya memerlukan wajib militer lipat ganda dengan intervensi jawaban di tahap wajib militer berbagai; menatap bisa menyediakan berguna

Umpan balik di berbagai tingkat; melatih mahasiswa di peranan penting jawaban kawan sebaya memperbaiki revisi dan perbaikan keseluruhan dalam menulis kualitas; dan umpan balik guru dan kawan sebaya terbaik dilihat sesaling mengimbangi (melihat, misalnya, Chaudron 1984; Zamel 1985; Mendonça dan Johnson 1994; Bongkahan 1999). Tetapi, benar bahwa kurang dari profesional > interaksi meja sudah ditemukan dalam kelompok sebaya, kadang-kadang karena participants’ kekurangan kepercayaan di ketepatan, ketulusan, dan speci > kota komentar kawan sebaya mereka (Zhang 1995). Tentu sering berjanji a=ective keuntungan menatap jawaban lebih guru jawaban (lebih tidak tak mengancam, lebih tidak tak otoriter, lebih bersahabat, lebih mendukung, dan semacamnya) dengan segera tidak dikenali oleh mahasiswa, atau memang disangga oleh penelitian. Di beberapa studi, umpan balik kawan sebaya sudah dinilai lebih tidak tak membantu oleh peserta daripada teacher’s umpan balik, dan di satu kasus lebih tidak berguna lagi daripada buku teman atau tatabahasa NS (Leki 1991).

Tetapi, satu kali proses jawaban kawan sebaya sedang berlangsung, writer’s persepsi nilai perusahaan mungkin berganti jika dia mulai mendapat umpan balik berguna, atau > nds yang mempercakapkan karangan menolongnya untuk menjadi yang lebih kritis di antara tulisannya sendiri. Bagi ini untuk terjadi, tetapi, kelas mesti dibentuk dengan semestinya. Kegagalan untuk memperlihatkan prosedur daksa, atau untuk terlibat dalam pra- berlatih, cukup mungkin adalah akibatnya di kurang dari profesional > aktivitas jawaban meja. Persoalan ini akan ditangani dengan lebih terperinci di bawah. Mengapa menggunakan menatap ada sejumlah sebab mengapa guru sudah pilih untuk memakai umpan balik kawan sebaya? Umpan balik di ruang kelas tulisan ESL. Pembaca jawaban dan Kawan Sebaya bisa menyediakan umpan balik berguna. Misalnya, Rollinson (1998) revisi menemukan kadar tinggi umpan balik sahih di antara mahasiswa perguruan-ratanya: 80% dari komentar dipertimbangkan berlaku, dan hanya 7% kemungkinan besar sedang merugikan. Mendempul (1994) mempunyai mirip



Mendempul (1994) mempunyai hasil mirip: 89%nya di tengahnya/mahasiswa seimbang FL yang lanjutan membuat komentar dia meraba berguna, dan 60% membuat saran yang belum dibuatnya sendiri kalau memandang surat-surat. Dia juga menemukan sangat sedikit nasehat jelek. Juga sudah dikasih lihat kaleng penulis kawan sebaya itu dan belajar e=ectively dengan alasan komentar dari pembaca kawan sebaya. Mendonça dan Johnson’s (1994) belajar memperlihatkan bahwa 53% dari revisi membuat adalah penggabungan komentar kawan sebaya. Rollinson (1998) mengetahui kadar penyerapan umpan balik pembaca pun yang lebih tinggi, dan 65% dari komentar disetujui baik betul-betul atau sebagian oleh pembaca. Sebab lain mengapa umpan balik kawan sebaya sudah yang dipakai ialah bahwa itu cenderung untuk menjadi di=erent baik dari yang dipunyai guru: Mendempul (1994) mengetahui bahwa umpan balik guru agak umum, sedangkan jawaban mahasiswa lebih banyak speci > C. Dengan begitu bisa dilihat sesaling mengimbangi, sebagai Bongkahan (1999) dan Chaudron (1984)


Akhirnya, mungkin menjadi yang menjadi seorang pembaca kritis others’ tulisan mungkin menjadikan mahasiswa pembaca yang lebih kritis dan revisers tulisan mereka sendiri. 24 Paul Rollinson Audience It bening bahwa penulis perlu menulis untuk hadirin, lebih baik yang bisa memberi umpan balik yang sedikit banyak segera. Kebanyakan menulis dilakukan oleh pembelajar sebesar L2 akan untuk maksud komunikatif: responsif ‘real’ pertemuan akan memberitahu penulis jika pesannya ialah e=ective, dan akan menganjurkan penulis merumuskan tulisannya berderet dengan sifat dan tuntutan pembacanya. Hadirin kawan sebaya juga mungkin lebih bersimpati daripada yang lebih jauh dan mungkin lebih judgemental pertemuan guru. Umpan balik kerjasama dan Kawan Sebaya, dengan derajatnya komunikasi jawaban dan interaksi yang mungkin tinggi di antara pembaca dan penulis bisa menganjurkan collaborative dialog di umpan balik dua jurusan yang mana mapan, dan berarti diatasi di antara kedua partai. Juga ‘fosters banyak sekali

Sebenarnya mungkin ada banyak de > ciencies di komentar guru yang ditulis: mereka sudah dicela sebagai ialah unspeci > C, tak dapat dipahami, bertentangan, tidak konsisten, tak tepat, tak berarti kepada mahasiswa, tidak jelas, terlalu umum, abstrak, formulaic dan idiosyncratic (melihat, misalnya, Zamel 1985). Juga nyata bahwa kawan sebaya bisa melewatkan lebih banyak waktu lagi yang menyediakan umpan balik atas wajib militer perseorangan daripada guru yang digunakan secara berlebihan, dan juga ada lebih cepat ‘turnover’ waktu di antara > nishing menulis konsep dan mendapat umpan balik. Dengan begitu ada baik lebih tinggi density umpan balik, serta interaksi yang lebih segera di antara penulis maupun pembaca. Mahasiswa sikap mahasiswa sendiri mungkin tidak hanya > nd pengalaman jawaban kawan sebaya ‘bene > cial’ (Mendonça dan Johnson 1994: 765) dan melihat ‘numerous advantages’ bekerja di kelompok-kelompok (Nelson dan Murphy 1992: 188),

Tetapi dimensi sosialnya juga bisa meningkat participant’s sikap terhadap tulisan (Chaudron 1984). Aspek problematik melawan klaim antusias ini dan umumnya positif > ndings, umpan balik kawan sebaya tetapi, pertimbangan berikut sebaiknya diperhitungkan. Keterbatasan waktu Entah umpan balik lisan atau ditulis, proses jawaban kawan sebaya sendiri ialah a panjang sesuatu. Membaca wajib militer (mungkin lebih dari satu kali), membuat catatan, lalu baik bekerjasama dengan pembaca lain untuk mencapai mufakat dan menulis komentar, atau terlibat secara lisan dengan penulis dalam lingkaran umpan balik, akan memakan signi > logat jumlah waktu. Memakai umpan balik kawan sebaya di tulisan ESL kelas 25 PERHATIAN! TRIAL LIMITATION - HANYA 3 HALAMAN yang terpilih mungkin terubah PER CONVERSION. Membeli LICENSE REMOVES THIS LIMITATION. UNTUK melakukan OLEH SEBAB ITU, SILAHKAN berbunyi klik di FOLLOWING LINK: http://www.investintech.com/order a2d pro.htm


Experiment on the Theory
Teori Self-persepsi (SPT) adalah rekening uang kembalian sikap yang diperkembangkan oleh psikolog Daryl Bem [1] [2] menonjolkan bahwa kami memperkembangkan sikap kami dengan mematuhi kelakuan kami dan memutuskan sikap yang mana sudah harus menyebabkan mereka. Teori ialah counterintuitive di alam yang menyadari bahwa kami selalu mengira bahwa sikap terdapat sebelum kelakuan. Selanjutnya, teori mengusulkan agar orang menyebabkan sikapnya tanpa accessing ke negara bagian kesadaran dan perasaan dalamnya. [3] Dia berkeputusan kelakuan jelasnya sendiri secara rasional di cara sama dia mencoba menerangkan others’ kelakuan. Di percobaan untuk memutuskan apakah orang menyebabkannya/sikapnya sebagai seorang pengamat tanpa accessingnya/negara bagian dalamnya, Bem memeriksa simulasi antar perseorangan, di yang “observer-participant” diberi deskripsi terperinci satu kondisi eksperimen ketidakcocokan kognitif.
Pembuktian Teori Persepsi Kepribadian
Subyek mendengarkan pita seorang laki-laki yang secara antusias menggambarkan tugas yang membalik pasak yang membosankan. Beberapa subyek dikatakan bahwa laki-laki sudah dibayar $20 untuk penghormatannya dan kelompok lain diberi tahu bahwa dia dibayar $1. Yang itu di pikiran kondisi terakhir bahwa laki-laki sudah harus menikmati tugas lebih dari yang itu di kondisi sebesar $20. Hasil berlangsung mirip eksperimen Festinger-Carlsmith yang asli. Karena pengamat, yang tidak mempunyai akses ke actors’ negara bagian kesadaran dan perasaan dalam, dapat menunjukkan sikap sebenarnya aktor, mungkin bahwa aktor sendiri juga mencapai sikap mereka dengan memandang kelakuan mereka sendiri dari observer’s sudut pandang. Ada banyak penelitian yang diadakan oleh psikolog bantuan itu self-persepsi teori, mempertunjukkan bahwa emosi mengikuti kelakuan. Misalnya, ditemukan yang cocok emosi (termasuk suka, sebel, kebahagiaan, kemarahan, dll. ) dilaporkan mengikui dari kelakuan jelas mereka, yang sudah diselewengkan oleh experimenters. [4] Kelakuan ini ekspresi muka berbeda yang membuat yang dimasukkan, memandang dan mengambil sikap. Di akhir eksperimen, subyek menunjukkan dan melaporkan kasih-sayang dan sikap mereka dari kelakuan mereka yang dilatih meskipun ada fakta bahwa mereka disuruh dulunya bertindak sebagai cara itu. Bukti self-persepsi teori juga bisa dimengerti di situasi kehidupan nyata. Sesudah anak belasan tahun mengambil bagian di servis bersukarela yang ulang dan terus-menerus, sikap mereka dipertunjukkan untuk sudah pindah untuk menjadi lebih banyak peduli dan penuh perhatian kepada orang lain. [5]
Teori persepsi kepribadian ialah intially mengusulkan sebagai pilihan menerangkan kesimpulan percobaan teori ketidakcocokan kognitif, dan ada perdebatan sebagai untuk entah orang mengalami ganti sikap sebagai usaha untuk mengurangi ketidakcocokan atau akibat self-persepsi proses. Mendasarkan atas fakta bahwa self-persepsi teori berbeda dengan teori ketidakcocokan kognitif di itu tidak mengadakan pengalaman orang itu "negara bagian naik mobil negatif" mengadakan "ketidakcocokan" yang diminta oleh mereka untuk mengurangi, eksperimen berikut dilakukan untuk membandingkan kedua teori di bawah kondisi berbeda.


Tantangan Dan Kritik
Penelitian awal di atas pameran teori ketidakcocokan kognitif bahwa orang memang pengalaman arousal kalau kelakuan mereka tidak konsisten dengan sikap sebelumnya mereka. Waterman [13] mendesain eksperimen di peserta yang mana diminta menulis sehelai karangan yang menentang posisi mereka setuju. Lalu mereka diminta dengan segera melakukan tugas sederhana dan tugas sulit dan kinerja mereka di kedua tugas dinilai. Ditemukan bahwa mereka main lebih baik di tugas sederhana dan lebih buruk di tugas sulit, dibandingkan dengan yang mempunyai baru saja sehelai karangan yang cocok sampai sikap sebenarnya mereka. Seperti yang menyalakan lampu sein dengan pertemuan silaturahmi facilitation, meningkatkan perbuatan di tugas sederhana dan perbuatan yang diperburuk di pameran tugas sulit bahwa arousal dihasilkan oleh orang kalau kelakuan mereka tidak konsisten dengan sikap mereka. Oleh karena itu, teori ketidakcocokan kognitif nampak di kasus ini. Entah ketidakcocokan kognitif atau self-persepsi adalah teori yang lebih berguna adalah topik cukup banyak kontroversi dan sekumpulan besar kesusasteraan. Ada beberapa situasi di mana salah satu dari kedua teori lebih disukai, tetapi tradisional untuk memakai istilah teori ketidakcocokan kognitif dengan kelalaian. Sikap rekening teori ketidakcocokan kognitif berganti waktu people’s kelakuan tidak konsisten dengan sikap asli mereka yang jelas dan penting kepada mereka; sedangkan self-persepsi teori dipakai kalau sikap asli itu relatif ambigu dan lebih tidak tak penting. Studi sudah nampak bahwa di constrast ke tradisional kepercayaan, sebagian besar people’s sikap lemah dan tidak jelas. Dengan begitu, self-persepsi teori ialah signficant di menterjemahkan one’s memiliki sikap, seperti one’s penilai one’s ciri tokoh [14] [15] dan apakah sesuatu akan menipu untuk mencapai cita-cita. [16]


THE TEACHER’S METHOD TO IN CREASING STUDENTS CAPACITY IN FIELD LISTENING EDUCATION ENGLISH

Introduction:
English as a foreign language has the greatest motion in Bangladesh. Status of English as the “library language” and the increased “international inter-dependence” are the two reasons of this which led to a greater focus on face-to-face language usage crossing the margin of pen and paper exercise. As the decline of Grammar-Translation method in 1960s proved that language learning might not be limited to “reading and writing” or ‘literacy’, the provisional continuation of Direct Method confirmed too that ‘listening and speaking’ that is ‘oracy’ is not all that is language. Language must be taught in an integrative way where all four skills are focused.

But most often, even in the modern methods of SL teaching, quite surprisingly, listening skill is ignored in a way or another! David Nunan (1997) commented that listening is the “Cinderella Skill” which is overlooked by its elder sister “speaking” in SL learning. As ‘to expertise the productive skills like speaking and writing’ has become the standard of the knowledge of second language, listening and reading have been turned to be the secondary ones. Besides, in our schools, colleges and even in the higher levels, instructors direct how to read and write, not how to speak or listen. It is believed that these would be mastered by the learners automatically. Although listening had a boost up in 1960s (direct method) and in 1980s (Krashen’s input hypothesis, 1981; James Asher’s Total physical response, 1988 and Gillian Brown, 1988), it turned a fashion in most cases!

In this article, I have tried to show how listening helps EFL learners to develop language skill. Despite the fact that it is not a research article, a small scale survey has been done at Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh in order to demonstrate that listening practice is insisted by the learners and they find it functional in language learning.

What is listening?

Listening is a skill in a sense that it’s a related but distinct process than hearing which involves merely perceiving sound in a passive way while listening occupies an active and immediate analysis of the streams of sounds. This correlation is like that between seeing and reading. Seeing is a very ordinary and passive state while reading is a focused process requiring reader’s instrumental approach. Listening has a “volitional component”. Tomatis’ (2007) view is, while listening; the desire to listen, as well as the capability to listen (comprehension) must be present with the listener for the successful recognition and analysis of the sound.

What ‘listening’ really means is ‘listening and understanding what we hear at the same time’. So, two concurrent actions are demanded to take place in this process. Besides, according to Mecheal Rost (1991), listening comprises some component skills which are:
• discriminating between sounds,
• recognizing words,
• identifying grammatical groupings of words,
• identifying expressions and sets of utterances that act to create meaning,
• connecting linguistic cues to non-linguistic and paralinguistic cues,
• using background knowledge to predict and later to confirm meaning and recalling important words and ides.

As McDonough and Shaw ( 1993) and Rost (1991) explain that a listener as a processor of language has to go through three processes using three types of skills:

a. Processing sound/ Perception skills: As the complete perception doesn’t emerge from only the source of sound, listeners segment the stream of sound and detect word boundaries, contracted forms, vocabulary, sentence and clause boundaries, stress on longer words and effect on the rest of the words, the significance of intonation and other language-related features, changes in pitch, tone and speed of delivery, word order pattern, grammatical word classes, key words, basic syntactic patterns, cohesive devices etc.

b. Processing meaning/ Analysis skills:
It’s a very important stage in the sense, as researches show, that syntax is lost to memory within a very short time whereas meaning is retained for much longer. Richards (1985:191) says that, ‘memory works with propositions, not with sentences’. While listening, listeners categorize the received speech into meaningful sections, identify redundant material, keep hold of chunks of the sentences, think ahead and use language data to anticipate what a speaker may be going to say, accumulate information in the memory by organizing them and avoid too much immediate detail.

c. Processing knowledge and context/ Synthesis skills:
Here, ‘context’ refers to physical setting, the number of listener and speakers, their roles and their relationship to each other while ‘linguistic knowledge’ refers to their knowledge of the target language brought to the listening experience. Every context has its individual frame of reference, social attitude and topics. So, members of a particular culture have particular rules of spoken behavior and particular topic which instigate particular understanding. Listening is thought as ‘interplay’ between language and brain which requires the “activation of contextual information and previous knowledge” where listeners guess, organize and confirm meaning from the context.

However, none of these micro-skills is either used or effective in isolation or is called listening. Successful listening refers to ‘the integration of these component skills’ and listening is nothing but the ‘coordination of the component skills’.

Nature of listening as a skill:
Besides the division of the skills as ‘receptive’ and ‘productive’, another subdivision focuses on ‘one-way reception’ and ‘interactive reception’ in this age of active learning. Reading and writing are one-way skills where learners don’t get direct feedback. But in speaking and listening, learners may have their understanding and reproduction checked instantly. Thus active and self-learning takes place.

Moreover, there is a traditional labeling for reading and listening as “passive” skills. But linguists believe that a listener is involved in guessing, anticipating, checking, interpreting, interacting and organizing by associating and accommodating their prior knowledge of meaning and form. Rost (1990) thinks, listeners “co-author” the discourse and they construct it by their responses.

Even as a receptive skill, listening differs greatly with reading as reading materials are printed and permanent enough where the learners are required to interact with the next sentence using the knowledge of the previous one while listening involves continuous material presentation where they have to respond to the immediate expression. From the view point of “product” or “process”, listening is more a process than a product which instantly shapes the understanding and utterances of the learners.

Why listening?
No doubt, listening is the most common communicative activity in daily life. according to Morley (1991, p.82), “We can expect to listen twice as much as we speak, four times more than we read, and five times more than we write.”

So, listening, as a skill, is assuming more and more weight in SL or FL classrooms than ever before. Rost (1994, p. 141-142), points out, “listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understanding input at the right level, any learning simply cannot begin. Listening is thus fundamental to speaking.”

Limited listening input fails to promote face-to-face communication by shaping their social development, confidence and self-image. Adequate listening practice could give the learners essential contact with handy input that might trigger their utterances. Teacher talk or peer- interaction might be the options for this. But according to Rod Ellis (1990), it’s not only the exposure to L2 that is enough, and learners need L2 data suited to the accurate stage of their development. If the learners don’t have “optimal” exposure in the target language, they can’t transmit the “comprehensible input” into “intake” through “production strategies” where learners attempt to use L2 knowledge. Krashen’s (1981) view is that “acquisition” takes place as a result of the learner having understood input that is a little beyond the current level of his competence that is ‘the i+1 level’. We must take into account that the level of listening input must be higher than the level of language production of the target learners. So, language teaching pedagogy must incorporate academic and designed listening practice.
Obviously listening influences other skills. A theory of Tomatis shows that “the quality of an individual’s listening ability will affect the quality of both their spoken and written language development”. He also views that if the sounds of the target language are presented to the learners before presenting them in written form, the ease with which they integrate those sound will be reflected in their understanding and production of the language. However, a pre-exposure or a following-exposure to listening input is a must on the part of a learner.

It is widely known that individual’s ability to process and analyze the sounds influence their ability to translate the sounds of language into their written form. We know, reading is not only a visual process rather involves the rapid analysis of letters and words that represents sounds and it is sound which gives the words meaning. A learner can decode the graphic images or recognize their meaning efficiently if their auditory processing skills are well developed. In a similar way, sounds are translated into graphic form in writing and if the sounds are poorly integrated their graphic representation will be hampered and problems like spelling mistakes may arise. So, we see the foundation on which reading and writing skills are built is spoken language again listening is the fundamental to spoken language as without listening anything we can’t reproduce or reply.

In a learner-centered approach, it is deducted that listening provides the learners with the following features of the target language:
• How the language is organized
• How native speakers use the language
• How to communicate in the language

Strategies for Listening:
Two types of strategies for listening have been in practice. They are defined so according to the ways of processing the text while listening:

a. In Bottom up processing, like reading, learners utilize their linguistic knowledge to identify linguistic elements in an order from the smallest linguistic unit like phonemes (bottom) to the largest one like complete texts (top). They link the smaller units of the language together to form the larger parts and it’s a linear process where meaning is derived automatically at the last stage. It is absolutely “text based” process where learners rely on the sounds, words and grammar in the message in order to create meaning.

b. Top- down interpretation, on the other hand, requires learners to go to the listening with their prior knowledge of topic, context, and type of text as well as knowledge of language to reconstruct the meaning using the sounds as clues. “This back ground knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next.”

It is assumed that bottom up process is applied while practicing minimal pairs, taking pronunciation tests, listening for specific details, recognizing cognates and word-order pattern but top-down interpretation is used in the activities like listening for the main idea, predicting, drawing inferences, and summarizing where learners relate what they know and what they hear through listening comprehension.

According to the types of situation where the understanding takes place, listening is divided into:
a. Reciprocal or interactive Listening where the listener is required to take part in the interaction and alternately listens and speaks. Interactive listening situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls in which listener has a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from conversation partner.

b. Non-reciprocal or non-interactive Listening where the listener is engaged in listening passively to a monologue or speech or even conversation. Some non-interactive listening situations are listening to the radio, CDs, TV, films, lectures etc. and here listener usually doesn't have the opportunity to ask for clarification, slower speech or repetition.

We believe, this type of listening is not totally non- interactive too. The interaction takes place here is the ‘cognitive’ one where students respond through understanding and creating the meaning. On the other hand, this might be turn to semi- reciprocal if the instructor makes them responding while checking their understanding through question-answer or discussion and clarification in the class or lab.

Methodology:

Methods applied for the survey included questionnaire and group interviews taken with 40 students who attend listening classes in the language lab regularly and it has been observed by the author that they do better in speaking and reading than others. The subjects are the students of 1st year 1st term from the department of Pharmacy and CSTE, ACCT, and FIMS. Although they are really not beginners and have learnt English at their secondary and higher secondary level, they have no exposure to authentic English speaking and listening. Here they have been practicing listening in a language lab using headphone using audio and video for three months. The purpose of the survey was convincingly explained to them and they took 30 minutes to think on the questions and to answer them.

Findings:

30 students claim that listening practice has raised their confidence by throwing away their fear, hesitations, inertia and shyness that they had before to speak in English.
• All of the 40 students have told that watching video clippings and movie while listening enables to identify the right responses, styles, expressions, behaviors, attitudes and emotions in particular situations through concentrating on gesture, body language, non- linguistic cues, planning utterances, adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairing utterances by asking for repetition, pre-closing and closing.
• 5 students have said that it has quickened their planning to respond as they listen to faster speaking than their own.
• 35 students opine that exposure to naturally spoken input by native speakers gives them practical experience of using language in target situations.
• 20 students who are highly motivated have found a change in their speaking style.
• 36 students think that listening to dialogues and conversation enriches their vocabulary and teaches how to use them appropriately.
• 10 students have found that intensive listening practice helps to remember the syntactic structures, spelling, accent and intonation.
• 19 students mention about learning of the cultures, feelings, reactions, trend and customs of the English speaking people that helps them feel motivated (integrative) to speak English.
• All of the 40 students opine that watching movie or video clippings draws more attention during the class and add to their learning.
• All of the 40 students believe that interaction with teachers for assessment or other purposes while listening help them greatly to remove confusion and use their newly gained knowledge immediately and make it regular in use.

Teaching listening:

Unfortunately, as I find a very diminutive effort in teaching listening in our country, this discussion may appear too much redundant to read to the language teachers! What we find in a traditional EFL classroom? Most of the classes complete their Language course without practice listening even for a day! Very few ELT trained teachers, now-a-days, in line with the flow of CLT; efforts for listening practice consisted of teacher reading aloud a written text slowly, once or more so that it is understood and than asking some comprehension questions. It seems the objective here is ‘to present the written language in an alternative way’ where characteristics of naturally spoken language is totally absent and listening practice is farther beyond. If the materials used for listening class comply with that in speaking class, it will, certainly, give a fully fledged input to the learners, Teaching listening requires a bit more on the part of the teacher than that of the learners. One of the main principle of teaching listening, as I believe, should be “ Language material intended to used for training listening comprehension should never be presented visually first.” Good listening lessons go beyond the main listening task itself with related activities before and after the listening. The format may be like the following:

a. Pre-listening Stage: Some activities before listening may serve as preparation or warm-up for listening in several ways. These function as ‘reference’ and ‘framework’ by giving prior knowledge of listening activities. Some recommended per-listening activities include:

a. Introducing the topic and assessing their background knowledge of the topic or content of the material through commenting on a picture or photograph.
b. Activating their existing knowledge through discussion. Reading through comprehension questions in advance, working out own opinion on a topic, predicting content from the title etc. can be done.
c. Clarifying any necessary contextual information and vocabulary to comprehend the text. In this regard showing pictures maps or graphs and may be helpful.
d. Informing them of the type of text, their role, purposes of the listening etc. A short reading passage on a similar topic may help them.
b. While-Listening Stage: activities in this stage must follow the learners’ specific needs, instructional goal, listening purposes and learners’ proficiency level. While listening activities directly relate to the text and listeners are asked to do these during or immediately after listening.
. Some specific cares are required in designing while-listening activities. These are:

a. If the students are asked to give written information after listening, they should have chance to listen the text more than once which makes it easier for them to keep concentration while listening with specific purposes.
b. Writing activities should be to a minimum. As comprehension is the prime target, writing would make the listening more demanding. are samples of this.
c. Global activities like getting the main idea, topic, setting, summary that focus on the content and forms of the text should be given more so that listeners are guided through the text. Listening for the gist is such an activity.
d. More questions should be set up in order to focus student’s attention on the crucial elements that might help to comprehend the text. Following the rout on a map or searching for specific clues to meaning, or identify description of the given pictures might be appropriate here.
e. Attaching predicting activities before listening so that students can monitor their comprehension as they listen. Listening with visuals may serve here.
f. Giving immediate feedback to make the students examine their responses and how it was. Checking off items in a list, distinguishing between formal and informal registers conducted by teacher are examples here.

Listening activities here become varied according to their purposes and objectives. Four major distinctions include Attentive listening, Extensive listening, Intensive listening, Selective listening and Interactive listening.

Attentive listening:
Both of the ideas are true that attentiveness is a prior condition for understanding and listener often lapse attention for various reasons. Losing interest, inability to keep up with, losing track of goals, less confident are some of them. Teacher can help the listeners to hold their attention by personalizing the martial, using the target language while talking to them to keep flow, and lessening their stress and motivating by asking oral responses repeatedly. Activities in this stage would be interesting and easy including face to face interaction, using visual and tangible topics, clear description of the listening procedure, minimum use of written language, and immediate and ongoing responses etc so that learners can easily keep pace with the text and activity.
Listening to short chunks, music image, personal stories, teacher- talk, small question- answer, and interview etc may be applied in this stage.

Extensive listening:
This type of listening has also a greater ease than other types as it is concerned to promote overall comprehension of a text and never requires learners to follow every word and understand them. Learners need to comprehend the text as a whole which is called global understanding. Activities in this section must be chosen in terms with the proficiency level of the listeners.
At the lower level they may have problems to organize the information, so some non-verbal forms in responding might be given such as putting pictures in a right sequence, following directions on a map, checking of items in a photograph, completing a grid, chart or timetable etc.
At the developed stage, some language based tasks requiring constructing meaning, inferring decisions, interpreting text and understanding gist are usually recommended. Completing cloze exercises or giving one or two word answers, multiple choices, predicting the next utterances, forming connected sets of notes, inferring opinions, or interpreting parts of the text are some samples.

Intensive listening:
‘Hearing clearly’ is also a prime aspect of listening as it includes accurate perception without which the second phase of processing meaning becomes very difficult. Listening intensively is quite important to understand the language form of the text as we have to understand both the lexical and grammatical units that lead to form meaning. So, intensive listening requires attention to specific items of language, sound or factual detail such as words, phrase, grammatical units, pragmatic units, sound changes (vowel reduction and consonant assimilation), stress, intonation and pauses etc. Feedback on accuracy and repetition on the teacher’s part promote success here.
Paraphrasing, remembering specific words and sequences, filling gaps with missing words, identifying numbers and letters, picking out particular facts, discriminating the pronunciation of same phoneme in different positions, replacing words, finding stress and boundaries are some good intensive listening practice.

Selective listening:
It involves listening to selected part of a text, as it’s name suggests, to predict information and select ‘cues’ surrounding information. Thus, the listeners may have an assessment of their development in listening to authentic language. Here the focus is on the main parts of the discourse and by noticing these parts listener construct their understanding of the meaning of whole of the text through inferring. As the expectation on understanding is focused and has a purpose, in these activities, listeners have the chance of second listening to check understanding and have feedback repeatedly.
Listening to sound sequences, documentary, story maps, incomplete monologues, conversation cues and topic listening are examples of selective listening.

Interactive listening:
This is a very advanced stag of listening practice as it implies social interaction in small groups which is a ‘true test’ of listening. In interactive listening, learners, either in pairs or in groups, receive new information, identify them continuously. Besides, they have to work out the problems of understanding each other and formulate responses immediately as we are required to do in real life. So, in spite of calling ‘practice’, this goes beyond of it. As this phase involves both comprehension and production, it directly promotes speaking skill. Teachers have a central role in this stage. They have to set up specific goals so that learners can asses their own performance, observe learners’ language in order to provide immediate feedback on their interaction strategies.
Group survey, self introductions, short speeches, chatting and discussing, exchanging news and views, interviewing and being interviewed etc. might be appropriate here.

c. After-listening Stage: post listening activities can be used to check comprehension, valuate listening skill, use of listening strategies and use the knowledge gained to other contexts. So, these are called listening exercises at all and defined as ‘follow-up works.’ The features of these activities are:

a. Related to pre-listening activities, such as predicting.
b. May create a real life situation where students might be asked to use knowledge gained through listening.
c. May extend the topic and help the students remember new vocabulary.

Using notes made while listening in order to write a summary, reading a related text, doing a role play, writing on the same theme, studying new grammatical structures, practicing pronunciation, discussion group, craft project etc. are some post-listening activities.

Variables affecting and effecting successful listening:

Noise: Distractions and noise during the listening segment should be reduced and sound-proof language lab is perfect for this purpose.

Equipment: If the cassette player or CD player being used does not produce acceptable sound quality, it may harm developing skill or motivation.

Repetition: playing the text 2-3 times might be required in respect of the types of texts. In case of no chance of repetition, learners may become anxious about catching it all the first time and that will impede their actual performance.

Content: It is a strong variable to be able to make difference in developing skill. The material should be interesting and appropriate for the class level in topic, speed and vocabulary. Some guidelines for judging the relative ease or difficulty of a listening text for a particular purpose or particular group of students might be:

a. The selected material must be relevant to student’s real life; language of the text should be authentic and would vary in terms of learners’ interest and age group.
b. The storyline, narrative, or instruction should confirm common expectation in organization. It may contain main idea, details, and examples. An informative title might also be helpful.
c. Learners have to be familiar with the topic. They might feel major comprehension difficulties because of misapplication of background knowledge due to cultural differences.
d. At the beginner level of proficiency, the language of listening text should discard redundancy while in the higher proficiency level students may benefit from redundant language.
e. If the text involves more than one individual, the differences between them should be marked conspicuously which can make the comprehension easy.
f. Most texts should have visual supports like clippings, maps, diagrams, pictures or images in video that contextualize the listening input and provide clues to meaning in order to aid their interpretation.

Recording own tape: Any way, recording must be of an English speaker. Copying recording two to three times is preferred in order to avoid rewind which may discrete attention of the listeners.

Using video: Using video clippings with sound off and then asking students what dialogue is taking place is a good practice. Next, the teacher may play sound and check their understanding and interpret them about the discrepancy between their predictions and reality. It may also be done with the video first and giving only sound to guess what the context is can obviously effect comprehending.

Homework: In teaching listening, homework is a must. A listening task between two classes prevent them forgetting. Encouraging public listening and having notes on them is a free pave to walk in teaching listening which leads to success. Providing tape recording with questions, dictation, or a worksheet to complete may bring the expected results.

Using internet: If learners have opportunity to use a computer with internet access and headphones or speakers, teacher may direct them toward some listening practice sites and home works can also be assigned from these accesses

Limitations of the essay:
This essay doesn’t focus on every aspect of teaching or developing listening skill; rather it focuses mainly on the necessity and functions of listening input in learning a foreign or second language. The survey also reflects on the service of listening to the EFL learners who are instrumentally motivated. The context of the assay is this country though it reflects that of some other countries where the features don’t vary much.

Conclusion:
Definitely we have to admit that language learning depends on listening as we respond only after listening something. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the stimuli for language acquisition and make the learners interact in spoken communication. So, effective and ideal language instructors should help the learners to be introduced with native speaking, to be respondent to that both cognitively and orally. In order to do so, first, they should show the students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes.

Questionnaire
Name:
Role:
Department:

Q1: Does practice listening in the language lab help you to develop English skill?
Q2: How does it promote your learning?
Q3: Do watching movies or using video clippings add to your understanding?
Q4: How does interaction with teacher or interference of teacher while listening help you?

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