Minggu, 03 Januari 2010

salamu'alaikum wr wb,

Ada yang tidak setuju kalau rokok diharamkan karena
asap mobil metromini yang berbahaya toh tidak
diharamkan.

Jawabnya: 2 hal yang haram tidak akan menjadikan salah
satu atau keduanya jadi halal. Saat ini diadakan uji
emisi untuk memeriksa apakah asap kendaraan yang
dikeluarkan terlalu banyak/berbahaya. Jika tidak
lolos, harus diperbaiki atau dilarang. Jadi bukan jadi
alasan untuk tidak mengharamkan rokok.

Ada lagi yang berargumen, bukan rokok yang menyebabkan
mati. Ajal itu kan ditangan Allah.
Ini kan seolah-olah menyalahkan Allah. Padahal jika
orang misalnya mati bunuh diri dengan pisau, narkoba,
atau rokok, itu adalah salah mereka sendiri:

”Dan apa saja musibah yang menimpa kamu maka adalah
disebabkan oleh perbuatan tanganmu sendiri.. ” [Asy
Syuura:30]

Bukankah Allah melarang kita melakukan hal yang
membahayakan/mematikan kita?

“Dan belanjakanlah (harta bendamu) di jalan Allah,
dan janganlah kamu menjatuhkan dirimu sendiri ke dalam
kebinasaan..” [Al Baqarah:195]

Ada lagi yang berpendapat bahwa merokok tidak haram
karena tidak ada dalil yang mengatakan rokok itu
haram.

Jelas tidak ada dalilnya karena Nabi Muhammad hidup
pada tahun 600-an masehi sementara rokok baru dikenal
tahun 1500-an ketika bangsa Eropa melihat penduduk
asli Amerika menghisap tembakau yang dibakar dalam
pipa.

Hingga tahun 1940-an manusia menganggap rokok tidak
berbahaya. Tahun 1962 pemerintah AS menunjuk 10
ilmuwan terkemuka untuk meneliti bahaya rokok. Tahun
1964 kesimpulannya dimuat di Laporan Surgeon General
yang menyatakan bahwa rokok berbahaya bagi kesehatan
dan meminta pemerintah melakukan tindakan. Pada tahun
1965 penggunaan rokok turun 40% sejak diterbitkannya
laporan tersebut (MS Encarta).

Rokok mengandung 4000 zat kimia di mana 43 di
antaranya merupakan penyebab kanker. 90% kanker
paru-paru disebabkan oleh merokok sementara sisanya
merupakan perokok pasif.

Sekitar 442 ribu orang di AS tewas setiap tahun karena
merokok. Rokok menyebabkan kanker paru2, tenggorokan,
kandung kemih, ginjal, dsb. Di bungkus rokok jelas
disebut bahwa merokok dapat menyebabkan kanker,
serangan jantung, gangguan kesehatan janin, dan
impotensi..

Segala yang berbahaya meski namanya tidak disebut
dalam Al Qur’an dan Hadits tetap haram karena Nabi
sudah mengatakan:

“Dilarang segala yang berbahaya dan menimpakan
bahaya.” (Hadits hasan diriwayatkan Ibnu Majah,
Daruquthni, dan Malik dalam Al-Muwatha’)

Di AS iklan rokok sudah dilarang tampil di TV-TV dan
Radio. Orang-orang dilarang merokok di kantor-kantor
pemerintah dan gedung-gedung di mana ada anak-anak
(misalnya sekolah).

Smoking
Encyclopedia Article

Smoking, inhalation and exhalation of the fumes of
burning tobacco. Leaves of the tobacco plant are
smoked in various ways. After a drying and curing
process, they may be rolled into cigars or shredded
for insertion into smoking pipes. Cigarettes, the most
popular method of smoking, consist of finely shredded
tobacco rolled in lightweight paper. About 46 million
people in the United States smoke an estimated 420
billion cigarettes each year.

Until the 1940s smoking was considered harmless, but
laboratory and clinical research has since confirmed
that tobacco smoke presents a hazard to health. Smoke
from the average cigarette contains around 4,000
chemicals, some of which are highly toxic and at least
43 of which cause cancer. Nicotine, a major
constituent of tobacco smoke, is both poisonous and
highly addictive. According to the American Cancer
Society, smoking is the most preventable cause of
death in America today.

History

European explorers who arrived in the Western
Hemisphere in the 1500s observed Native Americans
smoking tobacco plant leaves in pipes. The colonists
who followed them grew tobacco plants as a cash crop
for export, and smoking became part of European
culture by the 1600s. Most tobacco was consumed in
pipes and cigars or as snuff (finely pulverized
tobacco inhaled into the nostrils). This pattern
changed by the early 20th century, by which time
smokers consumed more than 1,000 cigarettes per capita
each year in the United States and some European
countries. The general attitude of society was that
smoking relieved tension and produced no ill effects.
During World War II (1939-1945) American physicians
endorsed sending soldiers tobacco, and cigarettes were
included in the field ration kits of U.S. armed forces
personnel until 1975.

Some scientists noticed, however, that lung cancer,
which was rare before the 20th century, had increased
dramatically since about 1930. The American Cancer
Society and other organizations initiated studies
comparing deaths among smokers and nonsmokers over a
period of several years. All such studies found
increased mortality among smokers, both from cancer
and other causes. In addition, experimental studies in
animals showed that many of the chemicals contained in
cigarette smoke are carcinogenic.

In 1962 the U.S. government appointed a panel of ten
scientists to study the available evidence concerning
the health effects of smoking. Their conclusions were
included in the 1964 surgeon general’s report, which
stated that “cigarette smoking is a health hazard of
sufficient importance in the United States to warrant
appropriate remedial action.” Smoking in adults,
measured as an average number of cigarettes smoked per
year, began to decline steadily after the 1964 report
and has fallen more than 40 percent since 1965.

Health Effects of Smoking

About 442,000 people in the United States die each
year from illnesses caused by cigarette smoking.
Smoking accounts for nearly 90 percent of lung cancer
deaths. Additionally, smokers are at increased risk
for cancer of the larynx, oral cavity, esophagus,
bladder, kidney, and pancreas. While some negative
health effects of smoking manifest slowly over time,
others can be measured almost immediately. Sticky
brown tar leaves yellow stains on fingers and teeth.
Some of the inhaled tar is absorbed by lung cells,
causing them to die. Tar also damages the cilia in the
upper airways that protect against infection. Nicotine
causes arteries to constrict, lowering skin
temperature and reducing blood flow to the hands and
feet. Carbon monoxide deprives the body of oxygen,
binding to red blood cells in place of the oxygen
molecule and forcing the heart to pump more blood
through the body.

One-third of smoking-related deaths are caused by
coronary heart disease or chronic airway obstruction.
For example, the nicotine in tobacco combines with
carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke to damage the lining
of blood vessels and make blood platelets stickier.
Platelets form part of the damaging plaque buildup in
artery walls (see Arteriosclerosis). These effects in
combination contribute to the development of heart
disease. Smoking also increases the risk of stroke by
50 percent—40 percent among men and 60 percent among
women. Other research has shown that mothers who smoke
give birth more frequently to premature or underweight
babies, probably because of a decrease in blood flow
to the placenta. Babies born to mothers who smoke
during pregnancy are also at increased risk for sudden
infant death syndrome.

Cigar and pipe smoke contains the same toxic and
carcinogenic compounds found in cigarette smoke. A
report by the National Cancer Institute concluded that
the mortality rates from cancer of the mouth, throat,
larynx, pharynx, and esophagus are approximately equal
in users of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Rates of
coronary heart disease, lung cancer, emphysema, and
chronic bronchitis are elevated for cigar and pipe
smokers and are correlated to the amount of smoking
and the degree of inhalation.

Studies have found that cigarettes are addictive
because an unknown component of tobacco smoke appears
to destroy an important brain enzyme known as
monoamine oxidase B (MAO B). The enzyme is vital for
breaking down excess amounts of dopamine, a
neurotransmitter that triggers pleasure-seeking
behavior. Smokers have decreased levels of MAO B and
abnormally high levels of dopamine, which may
encourage the smoker to seek the pleasure of more
tobacco smoke.

Even nonsmokers are at risk from smoking. Recent
research has focused on the effects of environmental
tobacco smoke (ETS)—that is, the effect of tobacco
smoke on nonsmokers who must share the same
environment with a smoker. The United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that
exposure to ETS, which contains all the toxic agents
inhaled by a smoker, causes 3,000 lung cancer deaths
and an estimated 35,000 deaths from heart disease per
year among nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke can aggravate
asthma, pneumonia, and bronchitis, and impair blood
circulation.

The smoking habit and addiction to nicotine usually
begin at an early age. In the United States, more than
90 percent of adults who smoke started by age 21, and
nearly half of them were regular smokers by the age of
18. Despite increasing warnings about the health
hazards of smoking and widespread bans on smoking in
public places, smoking remains common among teenagers
and young adults. In 2001 surveys of students in
grades 9 through 12 found that more than 38 percent of
male students and nearly 30 percent of female students
smoke. Although black teenagers have the lowest
smoking rates of any racial group, cigarette smoking
among black teens increased 80 percent in the late
1990s. Advertisements aimed at a young audience are
largely blamed for this new generation of smokers.

Quitting Smoking

Studies of former smokers show that their risk of
dying from smoking-related disease decreases with each
year of abstinence. According to the World Health
Organization (WHO), smokers who quit smoking before
the age of 50 reduce their risk of life-threatening
disease by half after just one year, compared with
those who continue smoking.

Other benefits of quitting smoking include more
disposable income, admission to social activities and
institutions that ban smoking, and often, lower health
insurance premiums. Nonetheless, to quit smoking is
difficult, most likely because smokers crave the
effect of the nicotine in the smoke. The U.S. surgeon
general declared nicotine an addictive drug comparable
to other addictive substances, including cocaine,
heroin, and alcohol, in its ability to induce
dependence. Overall, tobacco smoking causes about 20
times the number of deaths in the United States than
all other addictive drugs combined.

Smoking cessation methods are plentiful, and many
books and products are available to help an individual
stop smoking. Many smokers turn to group help because
of the support and understanding provided by other
former smokers or people trying to quit. Most
successful group-help techniques involve a challenge
and reward system that also bolsters the
self-discipline of the former smoker.

A number of nicotine replacement products are
available to help a person quit smoking. Nicotine
patches are small, nicotine-containing adhesive disks
that must be applied to the skin. The nicotine is
slowly absorbed through the skin and enters the
bloodstream. Over time, a smoker uses nicotine patches
containing smaller and smaller doses of nicotine until
eventually the craving for nicotine ends. Nicotine gum
works in a similar manner, providing small doses of
nicotine when chewed. A nicotine nasal spray is a
physician-prescribed spray that relieves cravings for
a cigarette by delivering nicotine to the nasal
membranes. Also available by prescription, the
nicotine inhaler looks like a cigarette; when puffed,
the inhaler releases nicotine into the mouth.

An approach combining three different smoking
cessation therapies has found remarkable success. This
approach combines an antidepressant drug called
bupropin, marketed under the brand name Zyban, with a
nicotine replacement product and counseling. While
less than 25 percent of smokers who use nicotine
replacement products alone remain smoke-free for more
than a year, 40 to 60 percent of smokers using this
combination approach achieved this milestone.

Antismoking Action in Society

In the United States, the first direct action to curb
smoking after the U.S. surgeon general’s 1964 report
on smoking was the mandate of a warning on cigarette
packages by the Federal Trade Commission. This warning
took effect in 1964 and was strengthened in 1969 to
read: “Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined
That Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health.”
A stronger sequence of four alternative warnings was
developed in 1984. In 1971 all cigarette advertising
was banned from radio and television, and cities and
states passed laws requiring nonsmoking sections in
public places and workplaces.

This trend has continued and smoking is now banned at
the federal and state levels in most government
buildings and in many private businesses. As of
February 1990 federal law banned smoking on all
domestic United States airline flights under six hours
in duration. By 1998 more than 90 percent of nonstop
flights between the United States and all foreign
countries were also smoke free.

In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the
Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act. The
law bans smoking within any indoor facility used for
childhood education. By 2003 a number of states
(including New York, Connecticut, Maine, and
California) and cities (including Boston,
Massachusetts and Austin, Texas) passed laws banning
smoking in all bars, restaurants, and clubs. Several
European countries also began to ban smoking in public
places—especially in restaurants, bars, and cafes.
They include Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, and Norway.
A ban in the United Kingdom is scheduled to take
effect in 2007; a ban in France, in 2008.

The tobacco industry has been increasingly criticized
for its role in encouraging smoking, particularly in
young people. Various lawsuits have been brought
against tobacco companies to reclaim damages due to
disease or death associated with smoking. The first
major successful suit occurred in March 1996 when the
Liggett Group, a consortium of companies, agreed to
pay damages to five states. An onslaught of litigation
against the tobacco industry followed. In part to
avoid potentially ruinous lawsuits filed by states, in
1998 the tobacco industry and attorneys general from
46 U.S. states agreed to a $206-billion settlement.
The settlement, to be paid over 25 years, will be used
to compensate states for the costs of treating
smoking-related illness, to finance nationwide
antismoking programs, and to underwrite health care
for uninsured children.

The tobacco industry must also contend with a barrage
of lawsuits filed by individual smokers and their
families seeking damages for smoking-related health
problems and deaths. Across the United States, such
lawsuits have had mixed results. In several cases,
juries have cleared the tobacco companies of all
responsibility. While several other cases have
resulted in large awards for the plaintiffs, few hold
up under the appeals process.

Tobacco industry representatives long denied that
nicotine is addictive and that there is a link between
smoking and poor health. In recent years, however,
cigarette makers have faced increased pressure from
smoking-related lawsuits and federal regulators to
accept prevailing scientific opinions about the health
risks of smoking. In late 1999 Philip Morris, now
known as Altria, the nation’s largest cigarette
maker, publicly acknowledged that smoking is addictive
and causes serious health problems. This latest
admission was considered a way to make it more
difficult for those who have recently started smoking
to claim they were unaware of the dangers if they
choose to sue cigarette companies. In 2003 an Illinois
judge ordered Philip Morris to pay $10.1 billion in
damages for using misleading advertising campaigns
suggesting that cigarette brands marketed as “low
tar” or “light” are safer than regular brands.
Numerous scientific studies prove that the use of
low-tar cigarettes does not reduce the risk of
developing smoking-related disease, and the judge
found that Philip Morris intentionally disregarded
consumer rights by spreading disinformation.

Smoking cigarettes is the single greatest cause of
lung cancer. Smoking cigars or a pipe also increases
the risk of lung cancer. Tobacco smoking causes as
many as 90 percent of lung cancers in men and about 78
percent of those in women. Exposure to secondhand
smoke—that is, inhaling the tobacco smoke of
smokers—has occurred in most of the remaining cases.
Substances in tobacco damage the cells in lungs, and
over time the damaged cells can become cancerous. The
great majority of lung cancer cases could be prevented
and thousands of lives could be saved each year if
people quit smoking.

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