Selasa, 05 Januari 2010

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USING BLOGS AS A TOOL IN TEACHING WRITING TO THE SECOND GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA X

PROPOSAL











By:
Maksum
D35206015




ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH
STATE INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC STUDIES
SURABAYA
2010

INTRODUCTION


A. Background
In learning language there are four kinds of skills that must be learned by students, namely, reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Writing is one of the skill that it is difficult and complex subject because it cannot come automatically like others skills. It need some experiences, talent, and a lot of regular practice. The difficulty not only in generating idea and organizing idea but also translating this idea into readable text.
In this IT era, it is a rarity to find any student who does not have access to a computer and internet connections. So it is no longer sufficient to use online learning and teaching technologies simply for the delivery of content to students, because in this age the students become more technologically literate, the trends of reading and writing are shifting from paper-based texts to screen based texts. By this, a new perception in way of teaching is needed to make learning activity become interesting for students. And one of the alternative technique to create a new perception in way of teaching English is using Weblog.
“Weblogs, or blogs for short, were created as a tool for people to create online journals without the need of any programming experience or knowledge. Although not originally intended for use in EFL classes, blogs have immense potential as an extremely valuable tool for the teaching of second language writing” (Johnson, 2004). Given that students have access to the Internet, blogs can easily replace traditional classroom uses of the private print journal and will move to use online journal. In recent years, the use of these electronic journals in education is on the rise, especially in the United States. A good example is the Bay Area Writing Project which has organized the Educational Blogger Network (edBlog.Net) with the purpose of helping kindergarten through university teachers “use weblog technology for the teaching of writing and reading across the disciplines” (eBn, 2003).
In previous study that has done by Blackstone, et al find that within their classes the percentage of students who liked writing in general (82.4%) also liked blogging as an activity(81.4%). About the same percentage (78%) stated that they liked posting classroom assignments on their blogs. This seems to underscore the obvious: Students who like to write will probably like blogging, while students who do not like writing might not like blogging.
Other studies by Cobanoglu in ” An Analysis of Blogs as a Teaching Tool as Perceived by Hospitality Management Students” shows that In general, students agreed that creating (M=1.62) and posting messages to blogs (M=1.58) was easy. However, the learning curve was much better as they posted more blog messages. Students perceive that blogs are an interactive means of learning (M=1.90) and they stated that they learned something new because of the blog postings (M=1.92), and this increased their learning level (M=2.12). As part of the blog assignments, students were required to post five messages to their individual blog. The only condition the instructor set for these blogs was that they had to be related to the class material (hospitality technology). Following the week of postings, students were required to read two other classmates’ blogs and post a comment. When questioned, they agreed that this workload was fair (M=1.96) and reading two classmates’ blogs was educational for them (M=2.14). The majority of the students stated that they would not have done the assignment if no credit was given (M=2.88). This indicates that grading is a clear motivation, as with other assignments.
Using blogs in teaching English skill especially in writing have so many advantages, because These technologies enable desirable practices such as collaborative content creation, peer assessment, formative evaluation of student work, individual as well as group reflection on learning experiences, and up-to-date information regarding changes in collaborative spaces, and can be used in the development of authentic learning tasks, it is supported by (Campbell, 2003; Johnson, 2004; Oravec, 2002; Wilder & Merritt, 2004).
”Because blog features its easy-to-use interface, frequent text update, and interactive comment area, most educators applied their blogs to reading or writing classes”
Additionally, by utilizing free blogging services on the Internet, teachers are capable of creating and storing online supplemental materials for students, post class notes for student review, and give general feedback to the class as a whole and individually also students are able to submit assignments online. By this reason I believe using blogs in teaching writing will improve students’ capability in writing.

B. Research Problems
Based on the background of the study above, this study will try to answer the following questions:
1. How are blogs implemented in teaching writing skill?
2. How the students’ responses are after blogs are implemented?
3. How is the class atmosphere when blogs are implemented?
4. How is the progress of the students writing ability after blogs are implemented?




REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

A. Definition and history of blogs
1. Definition
a. A blog (short for weblog) is a frequently updated website that often resembles an online journal. It's so easy to create and update a blog - it requires only basic access to the Internet, and a minimum of technical know-how. Because of this, it is one of the easiest ways to publish student writing on the WWW. It's almost as easy as sending an email.
b. A blog (a contraction of the term "weblog") is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog Blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketches (sketchblog), videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), and audio (podcasting). Micro-blogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts.
2. History
a. The Word
The first use of the term weblog in relation to the delivery of content on a website comes from the delivery of a paper titled “Exploiting the World-Wide Web for Electronic Meeting Document Analysis and Management” by G. Raikundalia & M. Rees, two lecturers from Bond University on the Gold Coast, Australia made to a conference on August 14, 1995.
The paper discussed the use of “a Web browser access to various meeting document information, such as minutes, tabled documents, reports and document indexes. Applications are being developed to take standard electronic meeting log files, postprocess them in a variety of ways, and generate a series of indexes and summary files. These files are formatted in HTML and exploit hyperlinks to the full in order to relate the different types of information.”
Although the paper is aimed at the recording of electronic meetings, the processes described reflect strongly on what blogs evolved into. Interestingly the term “Weblog” is not featured on the remaining record of the paper, which is now hosted at the Charles Sturt University website, but is featured in its correct context in a Usenet post promoting the papers delivery at Bond posted on August 6, 1995.
Popular use of the term Weblog as we know it today cam from Jorn Barger of the weblog Robot Wisdom (robotwisdom.com) in December 1997.
b. The concept
The origins of modern blogging are often as argued about as what blogging is.
Many point to blogs as websites or webpages that provided links and comments to other pages, and its is from this basis that modern blogs emerged.
Tim Berners-Lee, father of the World Wide Web, first posted a web page in 1992 at CERN that kept a list of all new web sites as they come online.
The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) started a What’s New list of sites in June 1993. Notably the site provided entries sorts by date and the What’s New links included commentary. This service was eventually taken over by Netscape in what became on of the more popular web sites of its time.
In January 1994, Justin Hall launches Justin’s Home Page which would later become Links from the Underground. The site included links to and reviews of other sites. Notably on 10 January 1996, Hall commences writing an online journal with dated daily entries, although each daily post is linked by through an index page. Of the journal he writes “Some days, before I go to bed, I think about my day, and how it meshed with my life, and I write a little about what learned me.”
In February 1996, Dave Winer writes a weblog that chronicles the 24 Hours of Democracy Project.
In April, Winer launches a news page for users of Frontier Software, that goes onto became Scripting News in 1997, one of the oldest weblogs remaining on the net today. The company he heads, Userland goes on to release Radio Userland, one of the first blogging software tools.
After Jorn Barger introduced the term weblog into popular use in December 1997, blogging as we now know it continued to develop.
In November 1998, Cameron Barrett published the first list of blog sites on Camworld.
In early 1999 Peter Merholz coins the term blog after announcing he was going to pronounce web blogs as “wee-blog”, that was then shortened to blog. At this stage, a list maintened by Jesse James Garrett recorded that there were 23 known weblogs in existence.
As blogging started to grow in 1999, the first portal dedicated to listing blogs was launched, Brigitte Eaton launched the Eatonweb Portal. Eaton evaluated all submissions by a simple assessment that the site consist of dated entries, one of the criteria we use to day in identifying a blog.
In May 1999, Scott Rosenberg at Salon.com writes one of the first media articles on the emergence of weblogs and refers to the growing number of “Web Journalists”.
In August 1999, Pyra Labs, today owned by Google, launches the free Blogger blogging service, that for the first time provides an easy set of tools for anyone to set up a blog. Other services launched around the same time include Pitas and Groksoup, neither of which capture the imagination of bloggers in the same way as Blogger did.

B. Blogging and Instructional Techniques for eLearning
In their book eLearning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Ruth Colvin-Clark and Richard E. Mayer identified three instructional techniques for Learning:
1. Receptive: information acquisition
2. Directive: response strengthening
3. Guided Discovery: knowledge construction
The receptive technique emphasizes acquiring information and involves building instructional modules that open avenues to greater amounts of information while limiting application and experimentation. In contrast to this, the directive technique emphasizes frequent responses from learners with immediate feedback from the instructor. Guided discovery places the instructor in the role of expert who leads students toward solving real-life challenges and identifying the appropriate "conceptual codecs" to support student knowledge acquisition. Blogging is a simple technology that can be used to construct learning environments that fulfill these three instructional techniques.


C. Advantages and Disadvantages
The following are advantages and disadvantages of using blogs in teaching activity:
1. Advantages
• To provide extra reading practice for students.
This reading can be produced by the teacher, other students in the same class, or, in the case of comments posted to a blog, by people from all over the world.
• As online student learner journals that can be read by their peers.
The value of using learner journals has been well documented. Usually they are private channels between teacher and student. Using a blog as a learner journal can increase the audience.
• To guide students to online resources appropriate for their level.
The Internet has a bewildering array of resources that are potentially useful for your students. The problem is finding and directing your learners to them. For this reason, you can use your tutor blog as a portal for your learners.
• To increase the sense of community in a class.
A class blog can help foster a feeling of community between the members of a class, especially if learners are sharing information about themselves and their interests, and are responding to what other students are writing.
• To encourage shy students to participate.
There is evidence to suggest that students who are quiet in class can find their voice when given the opportunity to express themselves in a blog.
• To stimulate out-of-class discussion.
A blog can be an ideal space for pre-class or post-class discussion. And what students write about in the blog can also be used to promote discussion in class.

• To encourage a process-writing approach.
Because students are writing for publication, they are usually more concerned about getting things right, and usually understand the value of rewriting more than if the only audience for their written work is the teacher.
• As an online portfolio of student written work.
There is much to be gained from students keeping a portfolio of their work. One example is the ease at which learners can return to previous written work and evaluate the progress they have made during a course.
• To help build a closer relationship between students in large classes.
Sometimes students in large classes can spend all year studying with the same people without getting to know them well. A blog is another tool that can help bring students together.
2. Disadvantages
• Unwanted comments
It is possible when we are using blogs there are some unwanted comments from our students or general readers.
• Correction
It is difficult to use a blog for correcting students. Student written work can always be corrected before posting to the blog, or we can do class correction sessions using work published in the blogs.

D. Learning autonomy
There are a number of terms related to autonomy that can be distinguished from it in various ways. Most people now agree that autonomy and autonomous learning are not synonyms of , 'self-instruction', 'self-access', 'self-study', 'self-education', 'out-of-class learning' or 'distance learning'. These terms basically describe various ways and degrees of learning by yourself, whereas autonomy refers to abilities and attitudes (or whatever we think a capacity to control your own learning consists of). The point is, then, that learning by yourself is not the same thing as having the capacity to learn by yourself. Also, autonomous learners may well be better than others at learning by themselves (hence the connection), but they do not necessarily have to learn by themselves. Over the last few years, for example, more and more research is coming out on autonomy in the classroom and 'teacher autonomy'.
Using blog in classroom is kind of learning autonomy because students not only study in the class but also out of class (distance learning). So it possible from this media to improve students ability in writing

E. Writing
1. The Nature of writing
Writing is a complex process that allows writers to explore thoughts and ideas, and make them visible and concrete. Writing encourages thinking and learning for it motivates communication and makes thought available for reflection. When thought is written down, ideas can be examined, reconsidered, added to, rearranged, and changed.
Writing is most likely to encourage thinking and learning when students view writing as a process. By recognizing that writing is a recursive process, and that every writer uses the process in a different way, students experience less pressure to "get it right the first time" and are more willing to experiment, explore, revise, and edit. Yet, novice writers need to practice “writing” or exercises that involve copying or reproduction of learned material in order to learn the conventions of spelling, punctuation, grammatical agreement, and the like. Furthermore, students need to “write in the language” through engaging in a variety of grammar practice activities of controlled nature. Finally, they need to begin to write within a framework “flexibility measures” that include : transformation exercises, sentence combining, expansion, embellishments, idea frames, and similar activities).
There is no doubt that writing is the most difficult subject for second language students to master. The difficulty not only in generating idea and organizing idea but also translating this idea into readable text. Marcella Frank (in Hafid, 2009) states that the skills that involved in writing are highly complex. Second language writers have to pay attention to higher level skill of planning, organizing, as well as lower skill of spelling, punctuation, word choice, and so on. The difficulty becomes even more pronounced if their language proficiency is weak.
By those reason, most of students are afraid to write, because they are afraid to make some mistakes. Because writing itself is clearly complex process, and competence writing is frequently accepted as being the language skills to be acquired (Nunan, 1991).
2. Teaching Writing
There are several approaches to teaching writing that are presented by (Raimes, 1983) as follows:
• The Controlled-to-Free Approach
In the 1950s and early 1960, the audio-lingual method dominated second-language learning This method emphasized speech and writing served to achieve mastery of grammatical and syntactic forms. Hence teachers developed and used techniques to enable student to achieve this mastery. The controlled-to-free approach in is sequential: students are first given sentence exercises, then paragraphs to copy or manipulate grammatically by changing questions to statements, present to past, or plural to singular. They might also change words to clauses or combine sentences. With these controlled compositions, it is relatively easy to for students write and yet avoid errors, which makes error correction easy. Students are allowed to try some free composition after they have reached an intermediate level of proficiency. As such, this approach stress on grammar, syntax, and mechanics. It emphasizes accuracy rather than fluency or originality.
• The Free-Writing Approach
This approach stresses writing quantity rather than quality. Teachers who use this approach assign vast amounts of free writing on given topics with only minimal correction. The emphasis in this approach is on content and fluency rather than on accuracy and form. Once ideas are down on the page, grammatical accuracy and organization follow. Thus, teachers may begin their classes by asking students to write freely on any topic without worrying about grammar and spelling for five or ten minutes. The teachers does not correct these pieces of free writing. They simply read them and may comment on the ideas the writer expressed. Alternatively, some students may volunteer to read their own writing aloud to the class. Concern for “audience” and “content” are seen as important in this approach.
• The Paragraph-Pattern Approach
Instead of accuracy of grammar or fluency of content, the Paragraph-Pattern-Approach stresses on organization. Students copy paragraphs and imitate model passages. They put scrambled sentences into paragraph order. They identify general and specific statements and choose to invent an appropriate topic sentence or insert or delete sentences. This approach is based on the principle that in different cultures people construct and organize communication with each other in different ways.
• The Grammar-Syntax-Organization Approach
This approach stresses on simultaneous work on more than one composition feature. Teachers who follow this approach maintain that writing can not be seen as composed of separate skills which are learned sequentially. Therefore, student should be trained to pay attention to organization while they also work on the necessary grammar and syntax. This approach links the purpose of writing to the forms that are needed to convey message.
• The Communicative Approach
This approach stresses the purpose of writing and the audience for it. Student writers are encouraged to behave like writers in real life and ask themselves the crucial questions about purpose and audience:
Why am I writing this?
Who will read it?
Traditionally, the teacher alone has been the audience for student writing. But some feel that writers do their best when writing is truly a communicative act, with a writer writing for a real reader. As such, the readership may be extended to classmate and pen pals.
• The Process Approach
Recently, the teaching of writing has moved away from a concentration on written product to an emphasis on the process of writing. Thus, writers ask themselves:
How do I write this?
How do I get started?
In this approach, students are trained to generate ideas for writing, think of the purpose and audience, write multiple drafts in order to present written products that communicate their own ideas. Teachers who use this approach give students time to tray ideas and feedback on the content of what they write in their drafts. As such, writing becomes a process of discovery for the students as they discover new ideas and new language forms to express them. Furthermore, learning to write is seen as a developmental process that helps students to write as professional authors do, choosing their own topics and genres, and writing from their own experiences or observations. A writing process approach requires that teachers give students greater responsibility for, and ownership of, their own learning. Students make decisions about genre and choice of topics, and collaborate as they write.
During the writing process, students engage in pre-writing, planning, drafting, and post-writing activities. However, as the writing process is recursive in nature, they do not necessarily engage in these activities in that order.
3. Teaching writing using blogs
Using blogs in teaching English skill especially in writing have so many advantages not only for teachers but also for students, Wen-shuenn Wu in his paper “Using blogs in an EFL writing class” states that using blogs in teaching writing have following advantages :
(1) Johnson (2004) points out that the application of blogs is a useful supplemental aid to teachers. From any computer connected to the Internet, teachers can create, edit, or delete their teaching handouts such as notes, homework assignment, and review materials. All these teacher’s messages will be organized in a reversed chronological order with the latest postings on the top.
(2) Blogs can promote exploration of English websites (Campbell, 2004). Since it is quite simple for teachers to put English materials on line with links to their source websites, students have more chances to read related articles.
(3) The feature of automatic date-stamping for each post is quite useful. Students’ emails may, for some technical glitches, not reach their teachers or be carelessly deleted by their teachers. With the automatic date-stamping function, both teachers and students know clearly when students turned in their assignments. On the other hand, the automatic archive of past posts by date or theme can help teachers and students easily locate the message they are searching.
(4) If students do not have their own personal websites, an easy-to-use blog is a good start for them to interact with users of the cyberspace community. As Campbell (2004) emphasizes that simple customization of templates can help students build “a sense of ownership and unique online identity”. Most students will write more carefully if they know that they are going to publish their articles online for authentic readers who may comment on their postings.
(5) Teachers can easily use the blog to organize a collaborative learning environment in which students can peer edit others’ postings (Dieu, 2004; Mitchell, 2003). Students should be encouraged to comment their partner’s postings, which can also be shared by other classmates.
(6) In an article describing how blogs are integrated with educational activity as resources both for students and teachers, Oravec (2002) claimed that blog development can “empower students to become more analytical and critical” (p.618). Although she didn’t present any statistical data to prove that students using blogs would become more analytical and critical, I believe that students who are aware that their postings and comments will be read by their classmates will be more careful before they post them.
Previous study in using blogs in learning process also done by Blackstone, et. al find that within their classes the percentage of students who liked writing in general (82.4%) also liked blogging as an activity (81.4%). About the same percentage (78%) stated that they liked posting classroom assignments on their blogs. This seems to underscore the obvious: Students who like to write will probably like blogging, while students who do not like writing might not like blogging.
And other studies done by Cobanoglu in ” An Analysis of Blogs as a Teaching Tool as Perceived by Hospitality Management Students” shows that In general, students agreed that creating (M=1.62) and posting messages to blogs (M=1.58) was easy. However, the learning curve was much better as they posted more blog messages. Students perceive that blogs are an interactive means of learning (M=1.90) and they stated that they learned something new because of the blog postings (M=1.92), and this increased their learning level (M=2.12). As part of the blog assignments, students were required to post five messages to their individual blog. The only condition the instructor set for these blogs was that they had to be related to the class material (hospitality technology). Following the week of postings, students were required to read two other classmates’ blogs and post a comment. When questioned, they agreed that this workload was fair (M=1.96) and reading two classmates’ blogs was educational for them (M=2.14). The majority of the students stated that they would not have done the assignment if no credit was given (M=2.88). This indicates that grading is a clear motivation, as with other assignments.
Aaron Campbell (2003) has outlined three types of Weblogs for Use in ESL Classrooms:
a. The Tutor Blog
This is a type of weblog that is run by the tutor for the learners. It serves the following purposes:
 It gives daily reading practice to the learners. Sometimes students find assigned reading material too boring, difficult, or hard to relate with. This is because it is often written with another purpose in mind. So who better to write to them than the person who knows them best: the teacher. Entries are kept short, geared towards the learner interest, and linked to related online sources for further reading if desired. Vocabulary used in class can be recycled this way. New vocabulary words can be linked to definitions on other sites found with a search engine. Furthermore, a casual, natural writing style can be used by the tutor to develop learner familiarity with native language patterns.
 It promotes exploration of English websites. Any entry made by the tutor can and ought to encourage further exploration of the Internet in English by linking to related articles, and content based websites. For those learners reluctant to step outside the comfort of exploring the Web in their native language, being led to interesting English language sites will increase their confidence and help to overcome their aversion.
 It encourages online verbal exchange by use of comment buttons. At the bottom of each entry, any blog reader can make a comment that can be read and further commented on by all who access the site. Ask your students questions, give them riddles, challenge their views; whatever it takes to encourage them to comment.
 It provides class or syllabus information. Entries in the blog can also serve to remind students about homework assignments and upcoming discussion topics. Links can be provided to sites that introduce relevant topics of discussion. The tutor can also follow up on difficult areas of classroom work that might need review or clarification. In addition, a permanent link to the classroom syllabus and rules can be included on the blog.
 It serves as a resource of links for self-study. In the right and/or left margins of the blog, permanent links can be set-up and organized to aid the learner in self-study, for example links to online quizzes, English news sites, key-pal networks, audio and video files for listening practice and ESL interactive websites.
b. The Learner Blog
These are blogs that are either run by individual learners themselves or by small collaborative groups of learners. In ESL, learner blogs may be best suited for reading and writing classes. A common reading assignment can be followed by blog postings on the thoughts of each learner or group of learners. Furthermore, the act of constructing the blog may encourage the use of search engines and net surfing in English to find the appropriate sites to which links can be made. This will empower the learner to direct the reader to sites of choice for further reading. Individually, blogs can be used as journals for writing practice, or as free-form templates for personal expression. The idea here is that students can get writing practice, develop a sense of ownership, and get experience with the practical, legal, and ethical issues of creating a hypertext document. In addition, whatever they write can instantly be read by anyone else and, due to the comment features of the software, further exchange of ideas is promoted. Tutors can even run a mega-blog of select topics of interest gleaned from student blogs so that the broader issues are brought into focus on a single website.
c. The Class Blog
This type of blog is the result of the collaborative effort of an entire class. The following are some possible uses:
 In conversation-based classes it could be used like a free-form bulletin board for learners to post messages, images, and links related to classroom discussion topics. It could also be a space for them to post thoughts on a common theme assigned for homework.
 With intermediate and advanced learners, class blogs might also useful for facilitating project-based language learning, where learners can be given the opportunity to develop research and writing skills by being asked to create an online resource for others.
 Class blogs could also be used as a virtual space for an international classroom language exchange. In this scenario, learners from different countries would have joint access and publishing rights to the blog. The entire exchange would then be transparent to all readers and could be followed and commented on by other learners, tutors, parents and friends.
 For reading and writing classes, it might also involve the use of knowledge management software, like Userland's Manila, that allows for a great deal of threaded discussion behind the scenes. Much like a publishing group, individual learners can be given varying amounts of responsibility to publish material arising from postings on the discussion list. The results of this effort are what is seen on a website by the public at large.






RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the writer describes the research design which is used in this study, the source of data, research instrument, data collection technique, research procedure, data analysis technique. To make them clear and avoid bias, the writer himself elaborates them one by one in the following section.

A. Research design
In this research, the writer chooses classroom action research (CAR) because there is no one school that has used this teaching method (using blog).
Classroom Action Research is research designed to help a teacher find out what is happening in his or her classroom, and to use that information to make wise decisions for the future. Methods can be qualitative or quantitative, descriptive or experimental.

B. Source data
1. Primer data
The primer data that the writer uses is from the research that writer do. The writer does the research in SMA X. The object of the research is the students of the second grade. The data that the writer gets are from observation, questionnaires, test that given to the students and the last data is from the documentation.
2. Secondary data
The secondary data that the writer uses is related to articles based on the internet that support the research that the writer do. The writer also uses other supporting data that related to the research.


C. Research instrument
In the teaching English as a second language the teacher needs appropriate method. It is to make the students interest in learning English and make the students have ability in using English in the students’ communication.
In this research the writer does the research in SMA X. The writer gets the data by collecting the method data that the teacher uses questionnaires to the students, to be observer in the learning process class, and the students writing score as documentation.

D. Data Collection Technique
In collecting the data, the writer uses observation, questionnaires, test that given to the students and the last data is from the documentation.

E. Research Procedure
• In the first step, the writer read about the way to apply blogs in the classroom and the common material that related in this topic.
• The writer prepare a class blog and guide the student to make their own blog
• The writer give assignment in the class blog and students answer it in their blog
• Students must visit two blogs from their classmates and give comments
• The writer give the questionnaires
• The writer observe:.
a. The students response in the teaching learning process
b. The students’ activities or practices in the teaching-learning process.
• The last step is analyzing the observation result. It is about the teaching process and the student’s exercise (practice) that recorded by the writer.
The model of this classroom action research is :













1. Planning
In the classroom action research, the researcher makes a preparation. At this stage, the writer people suitable model of lesson plan, instructional material and prepare media, and the instrument of assessment.
2. Implementing
In this Implementing stage, the writer implements the blogs that have designed before
3. Observing
This stage is done to identify the classroom activities during the teaching and learning process. It is done while the action (using blogs) is being implemented.
4. Reflecting
Reflection is included with analysis from the activity that has done. The result from this stage can be inputted in the next cycle.

F. Data analysis technique
The writer uses descriptive method in the data analysis technique. Defines descriptive method as involving collection of data in order to test hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study (Gay 1976). In this research, the writer does observation to students in the teaching-learning process. So the writer will describe the observation result and about the influence using blogs in teaching writing trough the students’ writing score. The writer will ask the students’ score and distinguish the students’ score after using blogs and after the teaching-learning process without using blogs.








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